CLIMATE CHANGE DIRECTORY 

and FOSSIL FUEL ISSUES

(development initiated 05/11/12,  last update 11/18/17, last link check 01/03/15 using W3C Validator)
Steve Murov, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, http://murov.info/ 

A directory intended to provide quick access to links related to climate change science and fossil fuel issues.  Please recognize that this directory does not represent an exhaustive search for pertinent articles.  A search on Google for any of the topics will yield a list of hundreds of additional sites.  Please send suggestions for links to murovs@mjc.edu .


           http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/maps/


A new site on the dangers of climate change is available at:  http://murov.info/climatechangeprimer.htm

  http://murov.info/climatechangeimages.ppt .

Climate Change

CONTENTS

Earth warming?
   Consequences
   Reports and Summaries
       Sea Level
        new govt. report 11/3/17      
        Overview
        Habitat changes
        IPCC
       Glaciers
        NOAA
       Ocean circulation
        National Climate Assessment &Development Advisory Com.
       Weather disasters and extremes
        National Research Council
       Agriculture
        Copenhagen Conference 2008
      Water Resources      
        National Academy of Sciences
      Tempers, Violence and Wars
        EPA
      Wildfires
        World Economic Forum           Health Effects 
        International Energy Agency (IEA)    
        #United States Global Change
Fossil Fuel Issues
        U.S. Dept. of Defense
       General
        Center for Climate and Security     
        U.S. Dept. of Energy
        Ocean Acidification
        U.S. Climate Resilence Toolkit    
        NASA     
        CCL (Citizens Climate Lobby)     
        Reinsurance Association of America
        Depletion
        American Chemical Society
        Wars
        The Pope     
        Scott Mandia
        Mining Accidents
        Royal Society
        Oil Rig Accidents
        International_Energy_Agency_(IEA)
        Pipeline Explosions
        NCAnet
        Acid Rain
        Risky Business
        Water Pollution
        Skeptical Science
        Air Pollution
        Mark Jacobson
        Fracking
        Real Climate
        Allergies
        Colorado State University
        Radiation
        Shaun Marcott (study of last 11,300 years)
        Plant Growth Rates
        Richard Muller
Educational Resources
        NACAA
        Atmospheric Information
        New Yorker Magazine     
        New York Times     
        Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
        Resources for Teachers
        American Meteorological Association     
        World Meteorological Association
        Middle School
        Stanford -Concensus for Action    
        Yale (opinion polls)


        Recent Findings
        Powerpoint Presentations
        Climate Change in CA
        Online Course
        Southwest Climate Change Assessment Report    
         Nebraska Climate Change Report    
        Alternate Explanations
        Environmental Education
        Directories and Links           Sustainability Suggestions 
   Greenhouse Gases
Miscellaneous
       Water
        Carbon Footprint Calculator
       CO2 (carbon dioxide)
        Images of Environmental Change
        CH4 (methane)
        Video
         Fluorocarbons
        Renewable, Alternate Energy
         N2O (nitrous oxide)
        Movies
        Black carbon
        The Ozone issue
        O3 (ozone)
        Books (recent)
 
        Geoengineering


        Lectures


        Advocacy Organizations



Is the earth warming and if so what are the causes and consequences?

Editorial comments in red boxes are provided by the developer of this site to stimulate thinking.  As you read the sites below, please consider yourself to be an unbiased juror with the task of weighing the evidence and reaching the most reasonable and logical conclusion.

Report and Summaries

New Govt. Report - U.S. Global Change Research Program - https://science2017.globalchange.gov/

Overview 
http://murov.info/climatechangeprimer.htm
http://murov.info/climatechangecriticality.pdf
http://www.4cleanair.org/Documents/NACAAClimateSciencePrimerpost.pdf
http://www.aip.org/history/climate/index.htm
    History - http://www.aip.org/history/climate/co2.htm
http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/  
http://cen.acs.org/articles/87/i51/Global-Warming-Climate-Change.html
http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=environment_about_ghg 
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/globalwarming/what.html  
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Climate_Change 

https://environmentaljusticetv.wordpress.com/2013/03/27/permafrost-methane-time-bomb-nbc-news/
http://osse.ssec.wisc.edu/docs/outreach/Global_Warming_Fiction_Future_web.pdf 

IPCC
2014 -  http://www.ipcc.ch/ 
           http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/index.shtml    
           http://ipcc-wg2.gov/SREX/ 
           http://report.mitigation2014.org/spm/ipcc_wg3_ar5_summary-for-policymakers_approved.pdf 
           http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2/ 
           http://ipcc-wg2.gov/AR5/ 
           http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/ar5/prpc_syr/11022014_syr_copenhagen.pdf
2013 -  http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/#.Ukmbma_n9LO 
      or  http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/#.UkcKE6_n9LM 
           http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/uploads/WGIAR5-SPM_Approved27Sep2013.pdf 
           http://www.ipcc.ch/news_and_events/docs/ar5/press_release_ar5_wgi_en.pdf 
           http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/uploads/WGIAR5_WGI-12Doc2b_FinalDraft_All.pdf  
    http://www.ipcc.ch/ 
    http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data.shtml
    2012 - http://www.ipcc.ch/news_and_events/docs/srex/SREX_launch_media_advisory.pdf
              http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/ar5/review_of_wg_contributions.pdf 

NOAA
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/bams-state-of-the-climate/2009.php 
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/bams-state-of-the-climate/2012.php 
https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/2012-state-climate-humidity

One of the common comments by climate change naysayers is that water is the most important greenhouse gas but is ignored by climate change proponents.  However, the models do take water into account and in addition, the warming that the earth is experiencing is causing an increase in the water content of the atmosphere and this unfortunate feedback processes that increases the concentration of water, a greenhouse gas, could accelerate global warming.  Please see the previous website for a graph of global humidity vs. year.
 

NCADAC
http://www.globalchange.gov/ncadac
http://www.nesdis.noaa.gov/NCADAC/index.html 

National Research Council
http://nas-sites.org/americasclimatechoices/more-resources-on-climate-change/climate-change-lines-of-evidence-booklet/
http://nas-sites.org/americasclimatechoices/
http://www.scribd.com/doc/98458016/Climate-Change-Lines-of-Evidence

Copenhagen Climate Change Conference - 2009
http://climatecongress.ku.dk/pdf/synthesisreport/

National Academy of Sciences
http://dels.nas.edu/Report/Advancing-Science-Climate-Change/12782 
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=18373 
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/18373/abrupt-impacts-of-climate-change-anticipating-surprises
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/18730/climate-change-evidence-and-causes-set-of-5-booklets

EPA
https://www.epa.gov/climatechange
CO2 emission sources - http://ghgdata.epa.gov/ghgp/main.do 
http://www.epa.gov/climatestudents/basics/index.html 

World Economic Forum
http://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-risks-report-2016

International Energy Agency (IEA)
http://www.iea.org/topics/climatechange/

United States Global Change Research Program  (National Assessment Report)
https://science2017.globalchange.gov/ 
http://www.globalchange.gov/climate-change
http://www.globalchange.gov/browse/indicators
http://downloads.globalchange.gov/ocp/ocp2013/ocp2013.pdf

http://www.globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment/previous-assessments/global-climate-change-impacts-in-the-us-2009 
http://www.globalchange.gov/ncadac 
http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/
http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report 
http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/downloads 
http://www.globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment

U.S. Dept. of Defense
http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=121237 

U.S. Dept. of Energy
http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/07/f2/20130716-Energy%20Sector%20Vulnerabilities%20Report.pdf 

 U.S. Climate Resilence Toolkit
http://toolkit.climate.gov/

Center for Climate and Security
http://climateandsecurity.org/2014/02/26/update-climate-security-101-why-the-u-s-national-security-establishment-takes-climate-change-seriously/

NASA
http://climate.nasa.gov/
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3125113/Earth-2100-Nasa-maps-reveal-world-need-adapt-rising-temperatures-caused-climate-change.html
http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/maps/
http://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/global-temperature/

CCL (Citizen's Climate Lobby)
https://citizensclimatelobby.org/about-ccl/ 
https://citizensclimatelobby.org/ccl-conference-keynote-leiserowitz/ 

Reinsurance Association of America
http://www.reinsurance.org/RAA/News/April_2014/Climate_Voices__Sharing_Scientists__Expertise_on_Climate_Change/

American Chemical Society
https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/policy/publicpolicies/promote/globalclimatechange.html 
http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/climatescience.html 
https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/podcasts/globalchallenges/climatechange1.html 
http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/podcasts/globalchallenges/climatechange2.html 
http://cen.acs.org/articles/92/i16/Climate-Change-Revisited.html

The Pope
https://laudatosi.com/watch
https://eos.org/articles/pope-calls-for-action-on-climate-change-environmental-degradation
http://www.sfgate.com/business/article/Pope-blasts-California-s-cap-and-trade-system-6336494.php

Scott Mandia
http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/mandias/global_warming/  and included hotlinks

Royal Society
http://royalsociety.org/policy/projects/climate-evidence-causes/ 
http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18730 

International Energy Agency
http://www.iea.org/topics/ 

NCAnet
http://ncanet.usgcrp.gov/ 

Risky Business
http://riskybusiness.org/ 

Skeptical Science
http://skepticalscience.com/ 

Mark Jacobson testimonies to Federal agencies and other articles
http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/
http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/JDEnPolicyPt1.pdf
http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/DJEnPolicyPt2.pdf 

Real Climate
http://www.realclimate.org/

Colorado State Univ. - 100 Views of Climate Change 
http://changingclimates.colostate.edu/ 

Shaun Marcott (study of last 11,300 years) 
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/339/6124/1198.abstract 
http://www.policymic.com/articles/29385/climate-change-new-study-demonstrates-it-s-definitely-man-made

Richard Muller - The conversion of a climate change skeptic.
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/30/opinion/the-conversion-of-a-climate-change-skeptic.html?_r=2

      http://berkeleyearth.org/

NACAA
http://www.4cleanair.org/Documents/NACAAClimateSciencePrimerpost.pdf  

New Yorker Magazine
http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/08/24/the-weight-of-the-world

New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/topic/subject/global-warming-climate-change?inline=nyt-classifier

Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research 
http://www.pik-potsdam.de/ 

American Meteorological Association
https://www.ametsoc.org/ams/index.cfm/publications/bulletin-of-the-american-meteorological-society-bams/state-of-the-climate/

World Meteorological Association
 

http://www.wmo.int/pages/themes/climate/index_en.php 

Stanford -Concensus for Action
http://consensusforaction.stanford.edu/
http://mahb.stanford.edu/consensus-statement-from-global-scientists/

Yale (opinion surveys)
http://environment.yale.edu/climate-communication/projects/research/ 
http://environment.yale.edu/climate-communication/article/climate-change-in-the-american-christian-mind/
http://environment.yale.edu/poe/v2014/
http://environment.yale.edu/climate-communication/article/climate-change-in-the-american-mind-april-2014
http://environment.yale.edu/climate-communication/article/Global-Warming-CCAM-March-2015
http://e360.yale.edu/feature/how_can_we_make_people_care_about_climate_change/2892/

Recent Findings
feedback loops - http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v520/n7546/full/nature14338.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20150409
      http://gaia.whrc.org/news/pressroom/PR-2015-Apr-09-Permafrost-Thaw.html

http://www.sci-tech-today.com/news/Data--Faster-Warming-Trend-2001-10/story.xhtml?story_id=010000K6VTOK 
http://environment.yale.edu/climate-communication/article/Climate-Beliefs-September-2012/ 

http://woods.stanford.edu/news-events/news/climate-change-occurring-faster-ever 
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/472 
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/486  

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/20/science/earth/extremely-likely-that-human-activity-is-driving-climate-change-panel-finds.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&
http://theweek.com/article/index/248472/4-shocking-findings-from-the-uns-latest-climate-change-report 
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-09-05/ice-melting-faster-in-greenland-and-antarctica-in-un-leak.html 
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v502/n7470/full/nature12540.html (for full article, must be a Nature subscriber but some info below)
   http://www.nature.com/news/climate-change-gets-clocked-1.13922 
   http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/10/science/earth/by-2047-coldest-years-will-be-warmer-than-hottest-in-past.html?partner=rss&emc=rss
   http://www.weather.com/news/news/2047-coldest-years-may-be-warmer-hottest-past-20131009   

http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=18373 
http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18373


Climate change in California  (also see Drought in California)
http://cal-adapt.org/

http://stanford.maps.arcgis.com/apps/StorytellingTextLegend/index.html?appid=dafe2393fd2e4acc8b0a4e6e71d0b6d5
http://www.opr.ca.gov/m_climatechange.php
http://www.climatechange.ca.gov/ 
http://blogs.sacbee.com/capitolalertlatest/2012/08/jerry-brown-launches-website-to-rebut-climate-change-skeptics.html 
http://oehha.ca.gov/multimedia/epic/ 
http://www.ppic.org/main/publication.asp?i=1065 
http://gov.ca.gov/news.php?id=18065
CalEnvironScreen - http://oehha.ca.gov/ej/ces2.html

Southwest Climate Change Assessment Report
http://www.swcarr.arizona.edu/

Nebraska Climate Change Report
http://snr.unl.edu/download/research/projects/climateimpacts/2014ClimateChange.pdf

Alternate Explanations and Conspiracy Suggestions

The PBS broadcast (10/23/12) of the Frontline program called Climate of Doubt examines the actions of climate change deniers.  It is available at:  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/climate-of-doubt/ .  This program focuses on the thoughts and actions of climate change deniers and shows how they have, by using money and invoking fear, successfully lowered climate change to a low priority issue.  Notice that the environment was for all practical purposes not mentioned in any of the three presidential debates (2012 - other than a brief mention of renewable energy).   Climate of Doubt is a must watch program for everyone.  When one of the deniers was asked near the end of the program the question what if you are wrong, his response was that he would apologize and then reverse direction.  This is not an acceptable approach as the pay later instead of paying now approach comes with severe consequences and considerable suffering and it will take decades to reverse the trend.  It is likely that each year of delay will cost many years of corrective action.  Even if climate change consequences are exaggerated, ocean acidification poses another terrible threat.  There are also oil rig, mining  and pipeline accidents and resultant environmental impacts along with air pollution, water pollution and wars that result from fossil fuel use.  It is time that we take action.  The children of the world are depending on us.

http://e360.yale.edu/feature/how_can_we_make_people_care_about_climate_change/2892/
http://www.skepticalscience.com/argument.php 
   http://www.skepticalscience.com/ 
http://www.carbonbrief.org/blog/2011/04/900-papers-part-two-using-our-paper-is-misleading 
http://www.globalwarminglie.org/ 

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2217286/Global-warming-stopped-16-years-ago-reveals-Met-Office-report-quietly-released--chart-prove-it.html 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming_controversy 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming_conspiracy_theory 
http://www.forbes.com/sites/charleskadlec/2011/07/25/the-goal-is-power-the-global-warming-conspiracy/
http://truth-out.org/news/item/9445-who-is-behind-the-conspiracy-against-climate-change-science
http://www.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424053111904537404576554750502443800?mod=googlenews_wsj&mg=reno64-wsj&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Farticle%2FSB10001424053111904537404576554750502443800.html%3Fmod%3Dgooglenews_wsj
    however, see:  http://bib.irb.hr/datoteka/442903.2009GL041327.pdf 
                         
http://arstechnica.com/science/2011/08/cern-investigates-connection-between-cosmic-rays-and-clouds/ 
http://townhall.com/columnists/johnstossel/2014/12/10/climate-catastrophe-n1929523/page/full
Milankovitch cycles 
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/milankovitch.html 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milankovitch_cycles 
http://marineecology.wcp.muohio.edu/climate_projects_04/glacial_cycles/web/pdf/MilankovitchCycles.pdf
http://www.greeniacs.com/GreeniacsArticles/Global-Warming/Milankovitch-Cycles.html

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v529/n7585/full/nature16494.html

David Taylor (VOX)
http://www.vox.com/2015/5/12/8588273/the-arguments-that-convinced-this-libertarian-to-support-a-carbon-tax
http://www.vox.com/2015/5/15/8612113/truth-climate-change
http://www.vox.com/2015/5/19/8624229/the-news-on-climate-is-awful-so-now-what
http://www.vox.com/2015/5/14/8603543/conservatives-climate-change

Resistance to accepting anthropogenic climate change can usually be attributed to several factors:  some claim the science evidence does not support anthropogenic climate change, others say that any changes observed are due to astronomical cycles and not to human action and others simply think that the impact on our economy will be disastrous if action is taken to avoid climate change.  Some people including some prominent politicians have gone so far as to call climate change a conspiracy (to enable scientists to obtain funding), a hoax and comical.  For example, see:
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/04/19/boehner-calls-global-warm_n_188688.html 
http://thinkprogress.org/politics/2009/06/26/47862/broun-globalwarming-hoax/ 
http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2012/03/09/441515/inhofe-god-says-global-warming-is-a-hoax/

Directories and Links

http://murov.info/climatechange.htm 
http://gcmd.nasa.gov/ 

http://epa.gov/climatechange/links.html 
http://www.who.int/heli/risks/climate/climatedirectory/en/index1.html 
http://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/gcclinks.html 
http://environment.yale.edu/climate-communication/what-can-i-do-global-warming 
http://www.theenergyguy.com/Links_ClimateChange.html 
http://www.who.int/globalchange/links/climate/en/index.html 
http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/climate/links/links_topic 
http://www.unep.org/climatechange/Links/tabid/279/Default.aspx 
http://globalchange.nasa.gov/Resources/pointers/glob_warm.html 
http://airconditioningsoutheast.com/info/article/heating-the-earth-a-guide-to-global-warming 
 

Greenhouse gases as possible culprits

Current technology enables the determination of the concentration of the greenhouse gases (water, CO2, methane, nitrous oxide, freons and SF6) to be very accurately determined.  There is no doubt that the gases have been increasing during the last two centuries with CO2 increasing almost 40 % from 280 ppm to 400 ppm.  The increase can be directly correlated with the burning of fossil fuels by humans.  The only legitimate scientific question is how the increase in greenhouse gasses will influence the global climate.  The articles above provide substantial evidence regarding this issue but it is your responsibility as a juror to reach your own conclusions.

 

Summaries
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/index.html 
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/usinventoryreport.html 
http://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting/index.html
http://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting/ghgdata/reportingdatasets.html
http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/basics/today/greenhouse-gases.html
http://www.eia.gov/oiaf/1605/ggccebro/chapter1.html 
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/monitoring-references/faq/greenhouse-gases.php

http://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/current_ghg.html 
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/grnhse.html 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas 
http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2000/ast29aug_1/  
http://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/campaign/pdf/gases_en.pdf 

water
http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/vapor_warming.html 
http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/technical-papers/climate-change-water-en.pdf 

To some and perhaps many people, it is inconceivable that human action could affect the concentrations of the major constituents of the atmosphere.  However, very few people when asked, can name the three most abundant gases in dry air (water is often #3 but varies from 0 to 4%).  Some people can name 2 of the top 3 (nitrogen - 78% and oxygen - 21%) but very few name #3 correctly (argon 0.93%) and most incorrectly and importantly include CO2 among the top 3.  CO2 ranks at #4 but only at 0.04% (up from 0.03% over the last 200 years due to fossil fuel combustion).  Because atmospheric CO2 is so low, the amount of CO2 produced from combustion is not insignificant with respect to the amount in the atmosphere.  As a result and due to its long atmospheric life, human action has clearly increased the CO2 content of the atmosphere.

It might seem surprising that human activity could produce enough carbon dioxide to affect the atmosphere.  As a very rough idea, the volume of oil burned every year is about one cubic mile or about 1/4 of the volume of Crater Lake.  Converted to gas, the volume is huge and about the volume of Lake Superior.  This is for oil only and is more than double when considering the burning of all fossil fuels including coal.  This is just for one year.  Over the 200 years of the industrial revolution, burning has caused a 40% change in the atmospheric content of carbon dioxide.

CO2 (carbon dioxide)Figure 1 is a line graph showing the trends in
          atmospheric concentrations and anthropogenic emissions of
          carbon dioxide.
http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ 
http://co2now.org/Know-GHGs/All-Greenhouse-Gases/carbon-dioxide-information-analysis-center.html 
    http://co2now.org/ 
http://www.aip.org/history/climate/co2.htm 
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/ 
http://planetforlife.com/co2history/index.html 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbondioxide 
http://www.democracynow.org/2013/5/13/climate_tipping_point_concentration_of_carbon 
http://planetsave.com/2013/05/14/noaas-mauna-loa-observatory-sees-400ppm-carbon-dioxide-levels/ 
carbon dioxide concentration  correlation with temperature changes
  http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v484/n7392/full/nature10915.html 
 
http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2012/04/new-research-proves-rising-carbon-dioxide-levels-led-to-climate-change-before/
  http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2012/04/04/ice_age_data_bolsters_greenhouse_gas_warming_link/ 
 
http://www.skepticalscience.com/co2-lags-temperature.htm

As can be seen in the graph to the right, temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations correlate strongly over the last 350,000 years.  Some say that careful examination indicates that the temperature precedes the carbon dioxide concentration changes.  This has been interpreted by climate science skeptics as evidence that increases in carbon dioxide concentrations are the result of temperature increases rather than the cause.  However, closer inspection of the data reveals (see 4 articles immediately above) that most warming follows rather than precedes the carbon dioxide increases.    More importantly as can be seen in the graph, our present day carbon dioxide levels are unprecedented in magnitude and the best science available predicts that this will result in substantial warming of the earth.  In other words, no matter which was the cause and which was the effect historically, the earth is currently experiencing a new situation that needs and deserves serious consideration.

CH4 (methane)  (also see Fracking)
http://www.atmosresearch.com/NCGG2a%202002.pdf 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane 

http://www.climatecentral.org/news/limiting-methane-leaks-critical-to-gas-climate-benefits-16020?gclid=COPqyoSetLcCFeLm7AodMlkASA 
    Permafrost and methane feedback mechanisms
     
http://environmentaljusticetv.wordpress.com/2013/03/27/permafrost-methane-time-bomb-nbc-news/ 
       
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/08/060829-methane-warming.html 
      http://www.epa.gov/climatestudents/impacts/signs/permafrost.html 
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_methane_release 
      http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/JustOneThing/story?id=8457650#.UZl6Vqrn9LM 
      http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-18120093 
     
http://www.columbiatribune.com/news/perspectives/troubling-bubbles/article_58415ab1-f382-5425-bd0d-033e159bc5ee.html

DANGER, DANGER!  It is possible that the observed warming of the earth could cause melting of permafrost in the Arctic.  The melting will result in the release of trapped methane which is a much more effective greenhouse gas than CO2.  This phenomenon (a feedback mechanism) could accelerate the warming process and significantly shorten the time available for action to avoid serious consequences from climate change.

Fluorocarbons
http://www.fluorocarbons.org/95
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorocarbon

N2O (nitrous oxide)
http://epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/n2o.html 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrous_oxide

Black carbon (technically not a gas)File:Recent Sea Level
            Rise.png
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080323210225.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_carbon 

O3 (ozone)
http://www.oar.noaa.gov/climate/t_ozonelayer.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone#Ozone_as_a_greenhouse_gas  

Society has the tendency to act on challenges only when the challenge reaches the crisis stage.  With regard to the issue of climate change, even if you conclude that the probability is very low that climate change is anthropogenic, action should be taken now.  Unless your conclusion is that there is a zero chance, anthropogenic climate change warrants action as the consequences to life on earth could be beyond imagination.  The problem is that waiting until climate change causes a crisis is not acceptable as unlike many of society's other crisis, the fixes take decades.  If the crisis stage is reached, there will be many decades of very negative consequences.  Can we afford to take any risk that anthropogenic climate change is real?

Some Possible Consequences of Global Warming
    http://www.globalchange.gov/browse/indicators 

Sea level 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_sea_level_rise  
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ 
http://www.climate.org/topics/sea-level/index.html 
http://co2now.org/Know-the-Changing-Climate/Effects/ipcc-faq-sea-level-rise.html 
http://www.cop.noaa.gov/stressors/climatechange/current/sea_level_rise.aspx 
http://geology.com/sea-level-rise/

http://www.pik-potsdam.de/news/press-releases/jedes-grad-erderwaermung-koennte-den-meeresspiegel-auf-lange-sicht-um-mehr-als-2-meter-erhoehen
http://www.climatecentral.org/

Habitat change
http://eebweb.arizona.edu/courses/Ecol206/Walther%20et%20al%20Nature%202002.pdf 
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/ 
http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/climate-change/impacts/habitat_loss/ 
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006392 
http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2012/01/06/18704233.php  

http://indymedia.org.au/2012/01/22/biodiversity-crisis-habitat-loss-and-climate-change-causing-6th-mass-extinction 
human migration
    http://ipcc-wg2.gov/njlite_download.php?id=5866 
   
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/single-view/news/migration_and_climate_change_a_unesco_publication_on_one_of_the_greatest_challenges_facing_our_time/ 
    http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=34&products_id=1429&zenid=2gv7f79o3g1dm2v6dh0ktp15s6
   
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/Resources/SDCCWorkingPaper_MigrationandConflict.pdf 

Glaciers
http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/big-thaw/ 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retreat_of_glaciers_since_1850 
http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2012/0503/Greenland-s-glaciers-melting-faster-say-scientists 

http://www.cnn.com/2012/04/17/world/asia/glacier-himalayas-gain-mass/index.html 
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/global-warming-and-melting-glaciers.html 
http://www.agu.org/cgi-bin/highlights/highlights.cgi?action=show&doi=10.1029/2010PA002088&jc=pa 
video - http://www.upworthy.com/they-took-a-camera-to-a-remote-area-in-greenland-and-what-they-recorded-is-simply-terrifying?c=reccon1

Ocean circulation
http://www.pik-potsdam.de/~stefan/Publications/Book_chapters/rahmstorf_eqs_2006.pdf 
http://www.aip.org/history/climate/oceans.htm 
http://www.piscoweb.org/research/science-by-discipline/coastal-oceanography/ocean-currents 
http://www.geomar.de/en/research/fb1/ 

https://www.e-education.psu.edu/meteo469/node/218 

Weather disasters and extremes
http://www.epa.gov/highgwp1/electricpower-sf6/documents/conf12_Extreme-Weather_JayGulledge.pdf 
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/comparl/envi/pdf/externalexpertise/ieep_6leg/naturaldisasters.pdf 
http://climatechangepsychology.blogspot.com/ 
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/03/climate-change-us-heat-wave-wildfire-flooding_n_1645616.html 
http://www.skepticalscience.com/extreme-weather-global-warming.htm 

Arguments that the earth is warming are based predominantly on graphs such as the one above entitled Global Temperatures.  The data for these graphs results from a very complex averaging of temperature monitoring stations around the globe and is subject to a significant margin of error and controversy.  Another way of analyzing the temperature trends of the earth is to look at the number of record cold and hot temperatures set each year.  As one might expect, the number historically has been about equal.  However, for the last decade, the number of record highs has been double the number of record lows and for the last year, the number of record highs has been about 7 times the number of record lows.  Individual weather events should not be taken as evidence for or against global climate change but trends over many years provide evidence that should not be dismissed.

Agriculture
http://www.preventionweb.net/files/1090_foodproduction.pdf 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change_and_agriculture 
http://www.wallacechair.iastate.edu/PDF/Rosenzweig-Booklet.pdf
http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/29020/1/20020151.pdf
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/agriculture.html 
http://climatechange.worldbank.org/content/climate-smart-agriculture 
http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/climate-change/index_en.htm 
http://www.climate.org/topics/agriculture.html 
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2012/smsn/ngo/189.pdf 

http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/i2096e/i2096e00.htm

Drought in California:  http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/div/ocp/drought/medieval.shtml   The graphs in this paper show two long periods of drought in Calif. about 1000 years ago.  It would be interesting to hear if any of the experts think it is possible that we are starting another long drought period.  Two more articles on this subject  (probably based on the above web site) and a NY Times article on the California drought  are at: 

Water Resources
http://www.water.ca.gov/climatechange/cc101.cfm 
http://www.usgs.gov/blogs/features/2010/11/16/usgs-advocates-geography-awareness/ 
http://water.epa.gov/scitech/climatechange/index.cfm 
http://water.worldbank.org/topics/water-resources-management/water-and-climate-change 
http://www.idrc.ca/EN/Programs/Agriculture_and_the_Environment/Climate_Change_and_Water/Pages/default.aspx 
http://www.nrdc.org/water/readiness/ 
http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/i2096e/i2096e00.htm 
https://safestars.org/review-water/

Tempers, Violence and Wars
http://bigstory.ap.org/article/study-hotter-temperatures-leads-hotter-tempers 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-23538771  

Wildfires
http://www.energy.ca.gov/2012publications/CEC-500-2012-030/CEC-500-2012-030.pdf  
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/05/business/energy-environment/wildfires-and-climate-change.html?_r=2&

http://www.theverge.com/2013/10/22/4865460/climate-change-linked-to-wildfires-heat-waves-united-nations-christiana-figueres
http://snri.ucmerced.edu/news/study-media-avoid-climate-context-wildfire-coverage 
http://mediamatters.org/research/2012/07/03/study-media-avoid-climate-context-in-wildfire-c/186921 

Health Effects
 
https://www.epa.gov/climate-impacts/climate-impacts-human-health
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs266/en/
http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/programs/geh/climatechange/health_impacts/index.cfm
http://www.phi.org/news-events/787/how-climate-change-is-threatening-our-health
http://www.phi.org/uploads/application/files/h7fjouo1i38v3tu427p9s9kcmhs3oxsi7tsg1fovh3yesd5hxu.pdf 
http://climatehealthconnect.org/our-work/projects/community-vulnerabilities-to-climate-change/
http://www.thelancet.com/commissions/climate-change-2015
http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/sectors/human-health
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/134014/1/9789241507691_eng.pdf?ua
https://health2016.globalchange.gov/climate-change-and-human-health
https://health2016.globalchange.gov/
http://www.who.int/globalchange/publications/climchange.pdf
http://climatehealthconnect.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/FullGuideTEMP.pdf

Fossil Fuel Issues (in addition to the possibility of fossil fuel caused global climate change)

Even if climate change is not anthropogenic, there are many other problems associated with the use of fossil fuels.  Can we justify continued exploration and exploitation of fossil fuels and accept the deaths and environmental damage that are directly attributable to fossil fuels?  Clearly, abruptly stopping or even quickly phasing out fossil fuels would cause much more harm than good but should we be investing heavily in research into alternative energy sources to enable the gradual phase out of fossil fuels?

General
http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/green/news/2011/04/19/9463/fossil-fuels-a-legacy-of-disaster/ 
http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Safety-and-Security/Safety-of-Plants/Appendices/Safety-of-Nuclear-Power-Reactors---Appendix/

Ocean acidification, coral reefs
http://www.nrdc.org/oceans/acidification/ 
http://www.epoca-project.eu/ 
http://www.epoca-project.eu/index.php/what-is-ocean-acidification.html 
http://www.us-ocb.org/publications/oa_guide_english.pdf 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_acidification 
http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/Ocean+Acidification 
http://oceanacidification.net/ 

Depletion
http://www.resilience.org/primer 
http://www.peakoil.net/ 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubbert_peak_theory 
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/energy/2010/11/101109-peak-oil-iea-world-energy-outlook/ 
http://greatchange.org/ov-campbell,outlook.html 
http://www.odac-info.org/ 
http://www.oildepletion.org/roger/index.htm 
http://www.oildecline.com/ 
http://www.wikinvest.com/concept/Peak_Oil 

Wars
http://www.globalissues.org/issue/103/middle-east
http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/science/2011/09/does-climate-change-cause-war/ 

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/Resources/SDCCWorkingPaper_MigrationandConflict.pdf 

Mining accidents
http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/182484/International-Mining-Fatality-Database-project-report.pdf 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal_mining 
http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Coal_mining_disasters 
U.S. - http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/osar0012.htm 
          http://www.msha.gov/mshainfo/factsheets/mshafct2.htm 

Oil rig accidents
http://www.oilrigdisasters.co.uk/ 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deepwater_Horizon_explosion 
http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/deepwaterhorizon 

Pipeline explosions
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pipeline_accidents 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pipeline_accidents_in_the_United_States 

Acid rain
http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview/ 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid_rain 
http://water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/26026/Environmental_Problems/acid_rain.html 
http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html 
http://geography.about.com/od/globalproblemsandissues/a/acidrain.htm 
http://www.berkeyfilters.com/articles/the-causes-and-effects-of-acid-rain-water/ 

Water pollution 
http://www2.worldwater.org/datav7/chapter_4_fossil_fuel_and_water_quality.pdf  
    oil spills
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spill 
        http://www.environmentalpollutioncenters.org/oil-spill/humans/ 
        http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Oc-Po/Oil-Spills-Impact-on-the-Ocean.html 
        http://www.environmentalpollutioncenters.org/oil-spill/ 

Air pollution (radiation, mercury, sulfur and nitrogen oxides)
http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-and-you/affect/air-emissions.html 

https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2012/02/16/2012-806/national-emission-standards-for-hazardous-air-pollutants-from-coal--and-oil-fired-electric-utility?utm_medium=section_news&utm_source=homepage
    coal
        http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/healthy-air/coal-fired-plant-hazards.pdf 
        http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/coalvswind/c02c.html 
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_the_coal_industry 
    oil
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_the_petroleum_industry 
        powerpoint - http://www.slideshare.net/mechportal/air-pollution-in-petroleum-industry 


Fracking (also see CH4)
http://www.earthworksaction.org/issues/detail/hydraulic_fracturing_101    
http://www.economonitor.com/dolanecon/2012/05/04/fracking-and-the-environment-an-economic-perspective/ 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_fracturing 
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-08-11/gas-fracking-poses-serious-environmental-risks-u-s-panel-finds.html 
http://water.epa.gov/type/groundwater/uic/class2/hydraulicfracturing/wells_hydrowhat.cfm 
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/28/epa-methane-report_n_3175130.html 
http://www.theoec.org/Fracking?gclid=CNLN7ZCftLcCFYLm7AodqSYA1w 
http://harvardmagazine.com/2013/01/frackings-future 

http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/project_syndicate/2012/09/thanks_to_fracking_u_s_carbon_emissions_are_at_the_lowest_levels_in_20_years_.html 

Allergies
http://www.nrdc.org/living/healthreports/something-air-allergies-climate-change.asp
http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/impacts/climate-and-allergies.html   
http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1841125,00.html 

Radiation
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/coal-ash-is-more-radioactive-than-nuclear-waste/ 
http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/1997/fs163-97/FS-163-97.html 

Plant Growth Rates
http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/effects-of-rising-atmospheric-concentrations-of-carbon-13254108 
http://vtdigger.org/2013/09/02/invasive-plants-on-the-rise-in-vermont/ 
http://www.liebertpub.com/MContent/Files/Kleinman_ch19_p379-398.pdf 

Educational Resources

Atmospheric information
http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7a.html 
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/chemistry/3_1/3_1_4.html 
http://databib.org/index.php 

Resources for teachers (and students)
http://www.education.noaa.gov/Climate/Climate_Change_Impacts.html 
http://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov/Resources/FAQs/glob_warmfaq.html 
http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/climatescience.html 
http://www.explainingclimatechange.ca/ 
   
http://www.explainingclimatechange.ca/Climate%20Change%201-8/Lessons/lessons.html 
     http://www.ccce.divched.org/spring2012confchemp7

http://www.facingthefuture.org/
  
 https://www.facingthefuture.org/collections/high-school-curriculum/products/exploring-global-
          issues-social-economic-and-environmental-interconnections-grades-9-12?variant=13634214211

http://www.climatechangeeducation.org/ 
http://www.bbcleaningservice.com/get-clean-go-green.html
NCSE (National Center for Science Education) - http://ncse.com/climate 
    http://ncse.com/news/2013/04/evolution-climate-change-ngss-0014800 
NOAA - http://www.climate.gov/teaching/2014-national-climate-assessment-resources-educators 
acid rain - http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html 
CREEC - http://www.creec.org/programs
CLEAN - http://cleanet.org/index.html

NSTA -
http://www.nsta.org/climate/
EPA -
http://www.epa.gov/climatestudents/index.html
VC3 -
http://www.kcvs.ca/vc3/Lessons/homePage.htm
PhET - http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/greenhouse
NASA - http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/maps/

Middle School 
http://www.ucar.edu/learn/index.htm 
     http://www.ucar.edu/learn/1.htm     
http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00000762/climate-change 

Powerpoint Presentations 
http://www.slideshare.net/guestf307ffe/greenhouse-gases-and-global-warming-presentation 
http://www.slideshare.net/gowoodard/global-warming-its-worse-than-we-thought 
http://www.slideshare.net/djhspence/climate-change-science-since-2007 
http://www.slideshare.net/u439/global-warming-2433040 
http://www.slideshare.net/sylvain_richer/climate-change-a-silent-threat-by-srdf 
http://science.pppst.com/globalwarming.html 
http://policy.audubon.org/climate-change-powerpoint-presentation 

Online course
http://www.epainstitute.com/Global-Warming.html

Environmental Education
http://www.cde.ca.gov/pd/ca/sc/oeeceein.asp 

Sustainability Suggestions
http://www.epa.gov/sustainability/
http://www.homeadvisor.com/article.show.Go-Green-at-Home-For-Kids-and-Adults.17339.html
http://www.improvenet.com/environmental-friendly-cleaners-for-your-home
http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/SmartWay.do
http://climatekids.nasa.gov/go-green/
http://www.epa.gov/watersense/
http://blog.intheswim.com/green-pools-operate-an-eco-friendly-pool/

http://mysterytacklebox.com/learn/protecting-fish-ocean-wildlife-from-pollution
http://www.bbcleaningservice.com/get-clean-go-green.html
book - https://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781466575325
http://www2.epa.gov/recycle/recycling-basics
 

Miscellaneous

Carbon footprint calculator
http://www.carbonfootprint.com/calculator.aspx 
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/ind-calculator.html 
http://www.nature.org/greenliving/carboncalculator/index.htm 

Images of environmental change
http://earthshots.usgs.gov/tableofcontents 

Video 
http://www.pbs.org/journeytoplanetearth/ 
http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/greenhouse/ 
Richard Anderson's videos of presentations to MAPS (Modesto Area Partners in Science) - 
    http://share.yosemite.edu/view.aspx?i=1E7L    

ocean acidification - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgdlAt4CR-4 
glacier loss - http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/earth/extreme-ice.html 
http://www.cnn.com/videos/tv/2015/07/25/exp-gps-hansen-sot-climate.cnn
https://share.yosemite.edu/view.aspx?i=11H2

Renewable and Alternate Energy Sources
http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=environment_about_ghg 
http://www.altenergy.org/ 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_energy 
http://www.autoinsurancecenter.com/students-guide-to-alternative-fuels.htm
http://www.improvenet.com/a/harness-the-power-of-the-sun-the-complete-guide-to-using-solar-energy
https://usinsuranceagents.com/solar-power-at-home
Conservation and use of wind, solar and other renewable sources of energy should help to diminish the long term consequences of fossil fuel combustion.  The problem has been decades in the making and it will take many decades to reach a maximum atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration.  To turn the production of carbon dioxide around will probably require technological breakthroughs.  Two of the possible areas for research are nuclear fusion and artificial photosynthesis.  Commerical availability of these energy sources is probably at least 20 years away.  Historically, when there has been a need for a rapid advance in science and technology, the U.S. has responded with significant financial and people investments.  The Manhattan Project and the Apollo mission to the moon are two very successful examples of these dedicated efforts to reach desired goals.  Should we consider such an effort to find alternatives to fossil fuels?  The sites below provide some insight into the current research status of nuclear fusion and artificial photosynthesis.

nuclear fusion -
http://www.iter.org/
http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2014/02/12/275896094/scientists-say-their-giant-laser-has-produced-nuclear-fusion
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/high-powered-lasers-deliver-fusion-energy-breakthrough/

artificial photosynthesis - In Science magazine (Sept. 27, 1912, p. 384) G. Ciamician wrote:

"On the arid lands there will spring up industrial colonies without smoke and without smokestacks; forests of glass tubes will extend over the plains and glass buildings will rise everywhere; inside of these will take place the photochemical processes that hitherto have been the guarded secret of the plants, but that will have been mastered by human industry which will know how to make them bear even more abundant fruit than nature, for nature is not in a hurry and mankind is. And if in a distant future the supply of coal becomes completely exhausted, civilization will not be checked by that, for life and civilization will continue as long as the sun shines!"

Over 100 years later, we have not achieved Ciamician's prediction but the sites below provide an update on our progress.
http://phys.org/tags/artificial+photosynthesis/
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/artificial-photosynthesis-for-energy-takes-a-step-forward/
http://www.engineering.com/DesignerEdge/DesignerEdgeArticles/ArticleID/9567/A-Breakthrough-in-Artificial-Photosynthesis.aspx

JCAP - http://solarfuelshub.org/
Nocera - http://nocera.harvard.edu/Home
Ozin - https://raphazlab.wordpress.com/2014/01/09/geoffrey-a-ozin-artificial-photosynthesis-solar-fuels-from-the-sun-not-fossil-fuels-from-the-earth/
           http://nanowizardry.info/
Brookhaven - http://www.bnl.gov/chemistry/AP/



Movies (commercial documentaries)
An Inconvenient Truth - http://www.takepart.com/an-inconvenient-truth/film 
Cool It - http://lomborg.com/cool-it
The Great Global Warming Swindle -
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Global_Warming_Swindle 
http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/climate-change/ 
Chasing Ice - http://www.chasingice.com/ 
The Burden - http://www.theburdenfilm.com/
Global Warming - https://answersingenesis.org/store/product/global-warming/?sku=30-9-225
Time to Choose - http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/time-choose-telluride-review-821204

Part of the reason for studying history is to understand the causes of events that appear in hindsight to have been the wrong paths for civilization to have taken.  Perhaps the best historical analog to climate change has been the issue of freons and their impact on the ozone layer.  Primitive data in the early 1970's predicted that freons would negatively impact the ozone layer and among other negative effects result in an increase in skin cancer.  The world heeded the scientific alerts and reacted in a fairly timely manner to phase out the use of freons.  Data show that in fact the ozone layer was being impacted by freons including the production of an ozone hole over Antarctica with negative consequences on life.  Fortunately the actions taken worldwide have limited the damage and there is now evidence that the ozone depletion recently reached a maximum and is now decreasing.  The lesson for climate change has not sunk in, however, as the world for the most part is doing little to reverse fossil fuel consumption.

The Ozone Issue 
http://www.ozonelayer.noaa.gov/
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/about/ozone.html

http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/sc_fact.html 
http://www.epa.gov/ozone/strathome.html 
http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/ 
http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ozone/index_en.htm 
http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/ozone-depletion-overview/ 

http://www.theozonehole.com/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_layer     
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_depletion 

Books (recent)
http://cen.acs.org/articles/90/i50/Michael-Manns-Hockey-Stick.html 
    http://www.amazon.com/Hockey-Stick-Climate-Wars-Dispatches/dp/023115254X  
http://www.amazon.com/Climate-Smart-Energy-Wise-Advancing/dp/1483304477
Atmosphere of Hope: Searching for Solutions to the Climate Crisis Hardcover – October 6, 2015, by Tim Flannery

Geoengineering  
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoengineering 
http://geo-engineering.blogspot.com/ 
http://nas-sites.org/americasclimatechoices/

Lectures
Modesto Area Partners in Science (MAPS) events -  http://maps.events.mjc.edu/ 
      https://share.yosemite.edu/view.aspx?i=1E7L 
  

Modesto Junior College Science Colloquium - https://ems.yosemite.edu/MasterCalendar/MasterCalendar.aspx
      https://share.yosemite.edu/view.aspx?i=1EH5

Advocacy organizations 
   
Regional Economic Models, Inc. REMI (National and Dividend Fee Carbon Tax)
      http://citizensclimatelobby.org/

        http://www.remi.com/
       https://dv7gcmvxe5e8l.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/REMI-National-SUMMARY.pdf
       https://dv7gcmvxe5e8l.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/The-Economic-Climate-Fiscal-Power-and-Demographic-Impact-of-a-National-Fee-and-Dividend-Carbon-Tax-6.9.14.pdf
       https://dv7gcmvxe5e8l.cloudfront.net/
       https://citizensclimatelobby.org/remi-report/
       https://citizensclimatelobby.org/carbon-fee-and-dividend/

Organizations Fighting for a Better Climate (from: Atmosphere of Hope: Searching for Solutions to the Climate Crisis Hardcover – October 6, 2015, by Tim Flannery

Climate Communications & Research Organizations
http://www.carbontracker.org/
http://climatecolab.org/
http://www.climatecouncil.org.au/
http://www.climateinstitute.org.au/
http://climateoutreach.org/
http://www.climateworks.org/
http://www.rtcc.org/

Climate Advocacy
http://www.1millionwomen.com.au/
https://www.acfonline.org.au/
http://careclimatechange.org/
http://www.ceres.org/
http://citizensclimatelobby.org/
https://www.climaterealityproject.org/

Climate Action Networks
http://climatenetwork.org/
http://tcktcktck.org/

Renewable Energy
http://www.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/
http://www.irena.org/home/index.aspx?PriMenuID=12&mnu=Pri
http://www.ren21.net/
http://solar-aid.org/about
http://www.solarcitizens.org.au/

Divestment
http://350.org/
http://divestinvest.org/philanthropy/

Climate Youth Movements
http://www.aycc.org.au/
http://www.ourclimate.ca/
http://ukycc.org/

Exploring Matter:  An Interactive, Inexpensive Chemistry Exhibit for Museums
(contains 21 stations with 3 containing climate change related materials)
        http://murov.info/EM-TOC.htm

 

Postscript:

 

In 1908, Svante Arrhenius publised a book entitled Worlds in the Making that contained the following remarks:
"That the atmospheric envelopes limit the heat losses from the planets had been suggested about 1800 by the great French physicist Fourier. His ideas were further developed afterwards by Pouillet and Tyndall. Their theory has been styled the hot-house theory, because they thought that the atmosphere acted after the manner of the glass panes of hot-houses."
"... any doubling of the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air would raise the temperature of the earth's surface by 4�; and if the carbon dioxide were increased fourfold, the temperature would rise by 8�."
"We often hear lamentations that the coal stored up in the earth is wasted by the present generation without any thought of the future, and we are terrified by the awful destruction of life and property which has followed the volcanic eruptions of our days. We may find a kind of consolation in the consideration that here, as in every other case, there is good mixed with the evil. By the influence of the increasing percentage of carbonic acid in the atmosphere, we may hope to enjoy ages with more equable and better climates, especially as regards the colder regions of the earth, ages when the earth will bring forth much more abundant crops than at present, for the benefit of rapidly propagating mankind."

It is now time for the jury to reach its verdict.  Is it important to begin a phase out of fossil fuels?  The verdict is in your hands.  Remember that there is a possibility that the quality of life on earth depends on the decision.

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