CLIMATE CHANGE DIRECTORY 

and FOSSIL FUEL ISSUES

Resources with editorial comments

(development initiated 05/11/12,  last partial update 1/27/21)
Steve Murov, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, http://murov.info/ 
A directory intended to provide quick access to links related to climate change science and fossil fuel issues.  Please recognize that this directory does not represent an exhaustive search for pertinent articles.  A search on Google for any of the topics will yield a list of hundreds of additional sites.  Please send suggestions for links to:
 murovs@yosemite.edu  .


           http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/maps/


A site (12/5/18) that probes the causes and impacts of climate change is available at:

http://murov.info/climatechangeprobe.htm  

 

Climate Change

CONTENTS

Earth warming?
   Consequences
   Reports and Summaries
       Sea Level
        new govt. report 11/3/17      
        Overview
        Habitat changes
        IPCC
       Glaciers
        NOAA
       Ocean circulation
        National Climate Assessment &Development Advisory Com.
       Weather disasters and extremes
       
       Agriculture
       
      Water Resources      
        National Academy of Sciences
      Tempers, Violence and Wars
        EPA
      Wildfires
        Paris Climate Accord     
        World Economic Forum           Health Effects 
        International Energy Agency (IEA)    
        #United States Global Change
Fossil Fuel Issues
        U.S. Dept. of Defense
       General
        Center for Climate and Security     
        U.S. Dept. of Energy
        Ocean Acidification
        U.S. Climate Resilence Toolkit    
        NASA     
        CCL (Citizens Climate Lobby)     
        #Reinsurance_Association_of_America
        Depletion
        American Chemical Society
        Wars
        The Pope     
       
        Mining Accidents
        Royal Society
        Oil Rig Accidents
        International_Energy_Agency_(IEA)
        Pipeline Explosions
        NCAnet
        Acid Rain
        Risky Business
        Water Pollution
        Skeptical Science
        Air Pollution
        Mark Jacobson
        Fracking
        Real Climate
        Allergies
        Colorado State University
        Radiation
        Shaun Marcott (study of last 11,300 years)
        Plant Growth Rates
        #Richard_Muller
Educational Resources
        NACAA
        Atmospheric Information
        New Yorker Magazine     
        New York Times     
        Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
        Resources for Teachers
        American Meteorological Association     
        World Meteorological Association
        Middle School
        Stanford -Concensus for Action    
        Yale (opinion polls)


        Recent Findings
        Powerpoint Presentations
        Climate Change in CA
        Online Course
        Southwest Climate Change Assessment Report    
         Nebraska Climate Change Report    
           Climate Reform     
        Alternate Explanations
        Environmental Education
        Directories and Links           Sustainability Suggestions 
   Greenhouse Gases
Miscellaneous
       Water
        Carbon Footprint Calculator
       CO2 (carbon dioxide)
        Images of Environmental Change
        CH4 (methane)
        Video
         Fluorocarbons
        Renewable, Alternate Energy
         N2O (nitrous oxide)
        Movies
        Black carbon
        The Ozone issue
        O3 (ozone)
        Books (recent)
 
        Geoengineering


        Lectures


        Advocacy Organizations



Is the earth warming and if so what are the causes and consequences?

Editorial comments in red boxes are provided by the developer of this site to stimulate thinking.  As you read the sites below, please consider yourself to be an unbiased juror with the task of weighing the evidence and reaching the most reasonable and logical conclusion.

File:2017 Global warming attribution - based on NCA4 Fig 3.3 - single-panel  version.png - Wikimedia CommonsReport and Summaries

New Govt. Report - U.S. Global Change Research Program -
https://science2017.globalchange.gov/
https://www.globalchange.gov/

Overview 
http://murov.info/climatechangeprimer.htm
http://murov.info/climatechangecriticality.pdf
http://www.4cleanair.org/Documents/NACAAClimateSciencePrimerpost.pdf
http://www.aip.org/history/climate/index.htm
    History - http://www.aip.org/history/climate/co2.htm
http://cen.acs.org/articles/87/i51/Global-Warming-Climate-Change.html
http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=environment_about_ghg 
https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data   
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Climate_Change 

https://environmentaljusticetv.wordpress.com/2013/03/27/permafrost-methane-time-bomb-nbc-news/
http://osse.ssec.wisc.edu/docs/outreach/Global_Warming_Fiction_Future_web.pdf 

IPCC - https://www.ipcc.ch/
2020 - https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2020/05/2020-AC6_en.pdf
2018 - https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2018/07/SR15_SPM_version_stand_alone_LR.pdf

NOAA
https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/202010
http://www.noaa.gov/climate
https://www.climate.gov/

One of the common comments by climate change naysayers is that water is the most important greenhouse gas but is ignored by climate change proponents.  However, the models do take water into account and in addition, the warming that the earth is experiencing is causing an increase in the water content of the atmosphere and this unfortunate feedback processes that increases the concentration of water, a greenhouse gas, could accelerate global warming.  Please see the previous website for a graph of global humidity vs. year.

 

NCADAC
https://www.globalchange.gov/


National Academy of Sciences
https://www.nationalacademies.org/topics/climate

EPA
https://www.epa.gov/climate-research
https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators 2016 report is excellent and downloadable but also available by sending a request for Climate Change Indicators to climateindicators@epa.gov

Paris Climate Accord
https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement

World Economic Forum
h
ttps://reports.weforum.org/global-risks-report-2020/a-decade-left/

International Energy Agency (IEA)
http://www.iea.org/topics/climatechange/

United States Global Change Research Program  (National Assessment Report)
https://www.globalchange.gov/
https://science2017.globalchange.gov/ 
http://www.globalchange.gov/browse/indicators
http://www.globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment

U.S. Dept. of Defense
https://www.globalchange.gov/agency/department-defense
https://climateandsecurity.org/2019/01/new-pentagon-report-the-effects-of-a-changing-climate-are-a-national-security-issue/

U.S. Dept. of Energy
http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/07/f2/20130716-Energy%20Sector%20Vulnerabilities%20Report.pdf 
https://energy.gov/science-innovation/climate-change

 U.S. Climate Resilence Toolkit
http://toolkit.climate.gov/

Center for Climate and Security
http://climateandsecurity.org/2014/02/26/update-climate-security-101-why-the-u-s-national-security-establishment-takes-climate-change-seriously/

NASA
http://climate.nasa.gov/
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3125113/Earth-2100-Nasa-maps-reveal-world-need-adapt-rising-temperatures-caused-climate-change.html
http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/maps/
http://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/global-temperature/

CCL (Citizen's Climate Lobby)
https://citizensclimatelobby.org/
https://citizensclimatelobby.org/about-ccl/ 

Reinsurance Association of America
http://www.reinsurance.org/RAA/News/April_2014/Climate_Voices__Sharing_Scientists__Expertise_on_Climate_Change/

American Chemical Society
https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/policy/publicpolicies/sustainability/globalclimatechange.html
http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/climatescience.html 
http://cen.acs.org/articles/92/i16/Climate-Change-Revisited.html

The Pope
https://laudatosi.com/watch
https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/pope-francis-climate-change-denial-stupid_us_59b6ed8ae4b09be416574f72
https://eos.org/articles/pope-calls-for-action-on-climate-change-environmental-degradation
http://www.sfgate.com/business/article/Pope-blasts-California-s-cap-and-trade-system-6336494.php

Royal Society
http://royalsociety.org/policy/projects/climate-evidence-causes/ 

International Energy Agency
http://www.iea.org/topics/ 

NCAnet
http://ncanet.usgcrp.gov/ 

Risky Business
http://riskybusiness.org/ 

Skeptical Science
http://skepticalscience.com/ 

Mark Jacobson testimonies to Federal agencies and other articles
http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/

Real Climate
http://www.realclimate.org/

Colorado State Univ. - 100 Views of Climate Change 
http://changingclimates.colostate.edu/ 

Shaun Marcott (study of last 11,300 years) 
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/339/6124/1198.abstract 

Richard Muller - The conversion of a climate change skeptic.
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/30/opinion/the-conversion-of-a-climate-change-skeptic.html?_r=2
https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/29/richard-muller-climate-change-humans-koch_n_1715887.html

      http://berkeleyearth.org/

NACAA
http://www.4cleanair.org/Documents/NACAAClimateSciencePrimerpost.pdf  

New Yorker Magazine
http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/08/24/the-weight-of-the-world

New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/topic/subject/global-warming-climate-change?inline=nyt-classifier

Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research 
http://www.pik-potsdam.de/ 

American Meteorological Association
https://www.ametsoc.org/ams/index.cfm/publications/bulletin-of-the-american-meteorological-society-bams/state-of-the-climate/

World Meteorological Association
 

http://www.climate.gov.ki/tag/world-meteorological-organization/  

Stanford -Concensus for Action
http://consensusforaction.stanford.edu/

Yale (opinion surveys)
http://climatecommunication.yale.edu/
http://climatecommunication.yale.edu/visualizations-data/ycom-us-2016/?est=happening&type=value&geo=county
http://climatecommunication.yale.edu/topic/audiences/
http://climatecommunication.yale.edu/publications/climate-change-in-the-american-christian-mind/
http://climatecommunication.yale.edu/publications/climate-change-in-the-american-mind-april-2014/
http://climatecommunication.yale.edu/publications/Global-Warming-CCAM-March-2015/
http://e360.yale.edu/features/how_can_we_make_people_care_about_climate_change

Recent Findings
feedback loops - http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v520/n7546/full/nature14338.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20150409
   http://www.nature.com/news/climate-change-gets-clocked-1.13922 
   http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/10/science/earth/by-2047-coldest-years-will-be-warmer-than-hottest-in-past.html?partner=rss&emc=rss
   http://www.weather.com/news/news/2047-coldest-years-may-be-warmer-hottest-past-20131009   


Climate change in California  (also see Drought in California)
http://cal-adapt.org/

http://stanford.maps.arcgis.com/apps/StorytellingTextLegend/index.html?appid=dafe2393fd2e4acc8b0a4e6e71d0b6d5
http://www.climatechange.ca.gov/
CalEnvironScreen - https://oehha.ca.gov/calenviroscreen/report/calenviroscreen-version-20

Southwest Climate Change Assessment Report
http://www.swcarr.arizona.edu/

Nebraska Climate Change Report
http://snr.unl.edu/download/research/projects/climateimpacts/2014ClimateChange.pdf

Climate Reform
www.climatetransform.com

Alternate Explanations and Conspiracy Suggestions

The PBS broadcast (10/23/12) of the Frontline program called Climate of Doubt examines the actions of climate change deniers.  It is available at:  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/climate-of-doubt/ .  This program focuses on the thoughts and actions of climate change deniers and shows how they have, by using money and invoking fear, successfully lowered climate change to a low priority issue.  Notice that the environment was for all practical purposes not mentioned in any of the three presidential debates (2012 - other than a brief mention of renewable energy).   Climate of Doubt is a must watch program for everyone.  When one of the deniers was asked near the end of the program the question what if you are wrong, his response was that he would apologize and then reverse direction.  This is not an acceptable approach as the pay later instead of paying now approach comes with severe consequences and considerable suffering and it will take decades to reverse the trend.  It is likely that each year of delay will cost many years of corrective action.  Even if climate change consequences are exaggerated, ocean acidification poses another terrible threat.  There are also oil rig, mining  and pipeline accidents and resultant environmental impacts along with air pollution, water pollution and wars that result from fossil fuel use.  It is time that we take action.  The children of the world are depending on us.

http://e360.yale.edu/features/how_can_we_make_people_care_about_climate_change
http://www.skepticalscience.com/argument.php 
   http://www.skepticalscience.com/ 
http://www.carbonbrief.org/blog/2011/04/900-papers-part-two-using-our-paper-is-misleading 
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2217286/Global-warming-stopped-16-years-ago-reveals-Met-Office-report-quietly-released--chart-prove-it.html 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming_controversy 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming_conspiracy_theory 
https://www.forbes.com/sites/charleskadlec/2011/07/25/the-goal-is-power-the-global-warming-conspiracy/#540685497c08
http://truth-out.org/news/item/9445-who-is-behind-the-conspiracy-against-climate-change-science
http://www.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424053111904537404576554750502443800?mod=googlenews_wsj&mg=reno64-wsj&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Farticle% 2FSB10001424053111904537404576554750502443800.html%3Fmod%3Dgooglenews_wsj
    however, see:  http://bib.irb.hr/datoteka/442903.2009GL041327.pdf 
                         
http://arstechnica.com/science/2011/08/cern-investigates-connection-between-cosmic-rays-and-clouds/ 
https://townhall.com/columnists/johnstossel/2014/12/10/climate-catastrophe-n1929523
Milankovitch cycles Global Temperature Report for 2019 - Berkeley Earth
https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milankovitch_cycles 

Resistance to accepting anthropogenic climate change can usually be attributed to several factors:  some claim the scientific evidence does not support anthropogenic climate change, others say that any changes observed are due to astronomical cycles and not to human action and others simply think that the impact on our economy will be disastrous if action is taken to avoid climate change.  Some people including some prominent politicians have gone so far as to call climate change a conspiracy (to enable scientists to obtain funding), a hoax and comical.  For example, see:
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/04/19/boehner-calls-global-warm_n_188688.html 

Directories and Links

http://murov.info/climatechange.htm 

http://gcmd.nasa.gov/ 

https://www.epa.gov/climate-research

http://www.who.int/heli/risks/climate/climatedirectory/en/index1.html 

http://climatecommunication.yale.edu/

http://www.who.int/globalchange/links/climate/en/index.html 

https://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov/sitemap.html

Greenhouse gases as possible culprits

Current technology enables the determination of the concentration of the greenhouse gases (water, CO2, methane, nitrous oxide, freons and SF6) to be very accurately determined.  There is no doubt that the gases have been increasing during the last two centuries with CO2 increasing over 46 % from 280 ppm to over 410 ppm.  The increase can be directly correlated with the burning of fossil fuels by humans.  The only legitimate scientific question is how the increase in greenhouse gasses will influence the global climate.  The articles above provide substantial evidence regarding this issue but it is your responsibility as a juror to reach your own conclusions.

Hank Green on Twitter: "I am not a single-issue voter, but I am done voting  for people who deny the reality of a fucking graph.… "

Summaries
http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/basics/today/greenhouse-gases.htmlGraph of surface temperature anomalies as colored bars with an overlay line graph showing atmospheric CO2 since 1880
http://www.eia.gov/oiaf/1605/ggccebro/chapter1.html 
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/monitoring-references/faq/greenhouse-gases.php

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/grnhse.html 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas 
https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting 

water
http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/vapor_warming.html 

To some and perhaps many people, it is inconceivable that human action could affect the concentrations of the major constituents of the atmosphere.  However, very few people when asked, can name the three most abundant gases in dry air (water is often #3 but varies from 0 to 4%).  Some people can name 2 of the top 3 (nitrogen - 78% and oxygen - 21%) but very few name #3 correctly (argon 0.93%) and most incorrectly and importantly include CO2 among the top 3.  CO2 ranks at #4 but only at 0.04% (up from 0.03% over the last 200 years due to fossil fuel combustion).  Because atmospheric CO2 is so low, the amount of CO2 produced from combustion is not insignificant with respect to the amount in the atmosphere.  As a result and due to its long atmospheric life, human action has clearly increased the CO2 content of the atmosphere.

It might seem surprising that human activity could produce enough carbon dioxide to affect the atmosphere.  As a very rough idea, the volume of oil burned every year is about one cubic mile or about 1/4 of the volume of Crater Lake.  Converted to gas, the volume is huge and about the volume of Lake Superior.  This is for oil only and is more than double when considering the burning of all fossil fuels including coal.  This is just for one year.  Over the 200 years of the industrial revolution, burning has caused a 40% change in the atmospheric content of carbon dioxide.
Are CO2 levels increasing?

CO2 (carbon dioxide)
https://www.co2.earth/
http://www.aip.org/history/climate/co2.htm 
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/ 
http://planetforlife.com/co2history/index.html 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbondioxide 
http://www.democracynow.org/2013/5/13/climate_tipping_point_concentration_of_carbon 
http://planetsave.com/2013/05/14/noaas-mauna-loa-observatory-sees-400ppm-carbon-dioxide-levels/ 
carbon dioxide concentration  correlation with temperature changes

  http://www.nature.com/articles/nature10915
 
http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2012/04/04/ice_age_data_bolsters_greenhouse_gas_warming_link/ 
 
http://www.skepticalscience.com/co2-lags-temperature.htm

As can be seen in the graph to the right, temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations correlate strongly over the last 800,000 years.  Some say that careful examination indicates that the temperature precedes the carbon dioxide concentration changes.  This has been interpreted by climate science skeptics as evidence that increases in carbon dioxide concentrations are the result of temperature increases rather than the cause.  However, closer inspection of the data reveals (see 4 articles immediately above) that most warming follows rather than precedes the carbon dioxide increases.    More importantly as can be seen in the graph, our present day carbon dioxide levels are unprecedented in magnitude and the best science available predicts that this will result in substantial warming of the earth.  In other words, no matter which was the cause and which was the effect historically, the earth is currently experiencing a new situation that needs and deserves serious consideration. climatechangecriticality16.gif

CO2 Concentrations Hit Highest Levels in 3 Million Years - Yale E360

CH4 (methane)  (also see Fracking)
http://www.atmosresearch.com/NCGG2a%202002.pdf 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane 

http://www.climatecentral.org/news/limiting-methane-leaks-critical-to-gas-climate-benefits-16020?gclid=COPqyoSetLcCFeLm7AodMlkASA 
    Permafrost and methane feedback mechanisms
     
http://environmentaljusticetv.wordpress.com/2013/03/27/permafrost-methane-time-bomb-nbc-news/ 
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_methane_release 
      http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/JustOneThing/story?id=8457650#.UZl6Vqrn9LM 
     
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-18120093 
 

DANGER, DANGER!  It is possible that the observed warming of the earth could cause melting of permafrost in the Arctic.  The melting will result in the release of trapped methane which is a much more effective greenhouse gas than CO2.  This phenomenon (a feedback mechanism) could accelerate the warming process and significantly shorten the time available for action to avoid serious consequences from climate change.

Fluorocarbons
https://www.fluorocarbons.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/2020_08_03_EFCTC-Learn-about-selecting-and-using-GWPs-for-refrigerants-F.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorocarbon

N2O (nitrous oxide)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrous_oxide

Climate Change Indicators: Sea Level | Climate Change Indicators in the  United States | US EPABlack carbon (technically not a gas)
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080323210225.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_carbon 

O3 (ozone)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone#Ozone_as_a_greenhouse_gas  
http://www.ghgonline.org/otherstropozone.htm

Society has the tendency to act on challenges only when the challenge reaches the crisis stage.  With regard to the issue of climate change, even if you conclude that the probability is very low that climate change is anthropogenic, action should be taken now.  Unless your conclusion is that there is a zero chance, anthropogenic climate change warrants action as the consequences to life on earth could be beyond imagination.  The problem is that waiting until climate change causes a crisis is not acceptable as unlike many of society's other crisis, the fixes take decades.  If the crisis stage is reached, there will be many decades of very negative consequences.  Can we afford to take any risk that anthropogenic climate change is real?

Some Possible Consequences of Global Warming
https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/
https://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2019/12/27/climate-change-impacts-everyone/
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/global-warming-effects/


Sea level 
https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-global-sea-level
https://climate.nasa.gov/climate_resources/199/rising-tides-understanding-sea-level-rise/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_sea_level_rise  
https://www.co2.earth/
https://coast.noaa.gov/slrdata/
https://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/sltrends/sltrends.html
https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/sealevel.html
https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-global-sea-level
http://www.climatecentral.org/
http://climate.org/rising-sea-levels-and-indigenous-communities/

Habitat change
https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/climate-impacts/climate-impacts-ecosystems_.html
https://www.nwf.org/Educational-Resources/Wildlife-Guide/Threats-to-Wildlife/Climate-Change/Habitats
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-020-0789-x
https://climatechange.lta.org/climate-impacts/species-and-habitats/
http://eebweb.arizona.edu/courses/Ecol206/Walther%20et%20al%20Nature%202002.pdf 
http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/climate-change/impacts/habitat_loss/ 
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006392 
http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2012/01/06/18704233.php  

http://indymedia.org.au/2012/01/22/biodiversity-crisis-habitat-loss-and-climate-change-causing-6th-mass-extinction 
human migration
    http://ipcc.ch/ipccreports/tar/wg2/index.php?idp=450
    https://weblog.iom.int/intergovernmental-panel-climate-change-ipcc-calls-more-attention-human-mobility
   
http://publications.iom.int/books/iom-outlook-migration-environment-and-climate-change
   

Glaciers
https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-glacier-mass-balance
https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/glaciers/questions/climate.html

http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/big-thaw/ 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retreat_of_glaciers_since_1850 
http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2012/0503/Greenland-s-glaciers-melting-faster-say-scientists 

http://www.cnn.com/2012/04/17/world/asia/glacier-himalayas-gain-mass/index.html 

Ocean circulation
https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2950/arctic-ice-melt-is-changing-ocean-currents/
https://www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/earth-systems/blog/climate-change-is-weakening-   the-oceans-currents-heres-why-that-matters/
http://www.pik-potsdam.de/~stefan/Publications/Book_chapters/rahmstorf_eqs_2006.pdf 
http://www.aip.org/history/climate/oceans.htm 
https://www.e-education.psu.edu/meteo469/node/218 
http://www.noaa.gov/resource-collections/ocean-currents

Weather disasters and extremes
https://www.carbonbrief.org/mapped-how-climate-change-affects-extreme-weather-around-the-world
https://nca2014.globalchange.gov/highlights/report-findings/extreme-weather

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/comparl/envi/pdf/externalexpertise/ieep_6leg/naturaldisasters.pdf 
http://climatechangepsychology.blogspot.com/
http://www.skepticalscience.com/extreme-weather-global-warming.htm 

Arguments that the earth is warming are based predominantly on graphs such as the one above entitled Global Temperatures.  The data for these graphs results from a very complex averaging of temperature monitoring stations around the globe and is subject to a significant margin of error and controversy.  Another way of analyzing the temperature trends of the earth is to look at the number of record cold and hot temperatures set each year.  As one might expect, the number historically has been about equal.  However, for the last decade, the number of record highs has been double the number of record lows and for the last year, the number of record highs has been about 7 times the number of record lows.  Individual weather events should not be taken as evidence for or against global climate change but trends over many years provide evidence that should not be dismissed.

Agriculture
https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/climate-change-and-agriculture
http://www.preventionweb.net/files/1090_foodproduction.pdf 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change_and_agriculture 
http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/29020/1/20020151.pdf
https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/climate-change_en
http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/i2096e/i2096e00.htm

Drought in California:  http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/div/ocp/drought/medieval.shtml   The graphs in this paper show two long periods of drought in Calif. about 1000 years ago.  It would be interesting to hear if any of the experts think it is possible that we are starting another long drought period.  
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-california-climate-trauma-decade.html
https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/climate-change-ca.pdf
http://www.mercurynews.com/2014/01/25/california-drought-past-dry-periods-have-lasted-more-than-200-years-scientists-say/ 

Water Resources
https://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2019/09/23/climate-change-impacts-water/
http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/water
https://www.nrdc.org/resources/ready-or-not-evaluation-state-climate-and-water-preparedness-planning
http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/i2096e/i2096e00.htm

Tempers, Violence and Wars
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-23538771
https://ourworld.unu.edu/en/does-climate-change-cause-conflict
http://emiguel.econ.berkeley.edu/research/quantifying-the-influence-of-climate-on-human-conflict

Wildfires
https://www.c2es.org/content/wildfires-and-climate-change/
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/05/business/energy-environment/wildfires-and-climate-change.html?_r=2&

http://mediamatters.org/research/2012/07/03/study-media-avoid-climate-context-in-wildfire-c/186921 
https://climatetransform.com/

Health Effects
https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/effects/default.htm
 

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs266/en/

http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/programs/geh/climatechange/health_impacts/index.cfm

http://www.phi.org/news-events/787/how-climate-change-is-threatening-our-health

http://www.phi.org/uploads/application/files/h7fjouo1i38v3tu427p9s9kcmhs3oxsi7tsg1fovh3yesd5hxu.pdf 
http://climatehealthconnect.org/our-work/projects/community-vulnerabilities-to-climate-change/
http://www.thelancet.com/climate-and-health
http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/sectors/human-health
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/134014/1/9789241507691_eng.pdf?ua
https://health2016.globalchange.gov/climate-change-and-human-health
https://health2016.globalchange.gov/
http://www.who.int/globalchange/publications/climchange.pdf
http://climatehealthconnect.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/FullGuideTEMP.pdf

Fossil Fuel Issues (in addition to the possibility of fossil fuel caused global climate change)

Even if climate change is not anthropogenic, there are many other problems associated with the use of fossil fuels.  Can we justify continued exploration and exploitation of fossil fuels and accept the deaths and environmental damage that are directly attributable to fossil fuels?  Clearly, abruptly stopping or even quickly phasing out fossil fuels would cause much more harm than good but should we be investing heavily in research into alternative energy sources to enable the gradual phase out of fossil fuels?

General
http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/green/news/2011/04/19/9463/fossil-fuels-a-legacy-of-disaster/ 
http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Safety-and-Security/Safety-of-Plants/Appendices/Safety-of-Nuclear-Power-Reactors---Appendix/

Ocean acidification, coral reefsOcean acidification
https://www.nrdc.org/stories/what-you-need-know-about-ocean-acidification
https://www.us-ocb.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/43/2017/03/oa_guide_english.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_acidification 
http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/Ocean+Acidification 


Depletion
http://www.resilience.org/primer 
http://www.peakoil.net/ 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubbert_peak_theory 
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/energy/2010/11/101109-peak-oil-iea-world-energy-outlook/ 

Wars
http://www.globalissues.org/issue/103/middle-east
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/does-climate-change-cause-war-66970734/

Mining accidents
http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/182484/International-Mining-Fatality-Database-project-report.pdf 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal_mining 
http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Coal_mining_disasters 
U.S. - http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/osar0012.htm 
         

Oil rig accidents

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deepwater_Horizon_explosion 

Pipeline explosions
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pipeline_accidents 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pipeline_accidents_in_the_United_States 

Acid rain
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid_rain 
http://geography.about.com/od/globalproblemsandissues/a/acidrain.htm 
https://water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html
https://www.thoughtco.com/acid-rain-definition-1434936

Water pollution 
http://www2.worldwater.org/datav7/chapter_4_fossil_fuel_and_water_quality.pdf  
    oil spills
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spill 
        http://www.environmentalpollutioncenters.org/oil-spill/humans/ 
        http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Oc-Po/Oil-Spills-Impact-on-the-Ocean.html 
        http://www.environmentalpollutioncenters.org/oil-spill/ 
http://www.berkeyfilters.com/articles/the-causes-and-effects-of-acid-rain-water/ 

Air pollution (radiation, mercury, sulfur and nitrogen oxides)
https://www.epa.gov/outdoor-air-quality-data

https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2012/02/16/2012-806/national-emission-standards-for-hazardous-air-pollutants-from-coal--and-oil-fired-electric-utility?utm_medium=section_news&utm_source=homepage
https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2016/04/05/2016-06310/air-quality-control-reporting-and-compliance
    coal
         http://www.ucsusa.org/clean-energy/coal-and-other-fossil-fuels/coal-air-pollution#.WhybPoWcHIU
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_the_coal_industry 
    oil
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_the_petroleum_industry 
        powerpoint - http://www.slideshare.net/mechportal/air-pollution-in-petroleum-industry 


Fracking (also see CH4)
http://www.economonitor.com/dolanecon/2012/05/04/fracking-and-the-environment-an-economic-perspective/ 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_fracturing 
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-08-11/gas-fracking-poses-serious-environmental-risks-u-s-panel-finds.html 
https://www.epa.gov/hydraulicfracturing
http://www.theoec.org/Fracking?gclid=CNLN7ZCftLcCFYLm7AodqSYA1w 
http://harvardmagazine.com/2013/01/frackings-future 

http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/project_syndicate/2012/09/thanks_to_fracking_u_s_carbon_emissions_are_at_the_lowest_levels_in_20_years_.html 

Allergies
https://www.nrdc.org/stories/air-pollution-everything-you-need-know
http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/impacts/climate-and-allergies.html   
http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1841125,00.html 

Radiation
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/coal-ash-is-more-radioactive-than-nuclear-waste/ 
http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/1997/fs163-97/FS-163-97.html 

Plant Growth Rates
http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/effects-of-rising-atmospheric-concentrations-of-carbon-13254108 
http://vtdigger.org/2013/09/02/invasive-plants-on-the-rise-in-vermont/ 

Educational Resources

Atmospheric information
http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7a.html 

Resources for teachers (and students)
http://www.noaa.gov/resource-collections/climate-change-impacts
https://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/index.html
http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/climatescience.html 
http://www.facingthefuture.org/
http://www.climatechangeeducation.org/ 
http://www.bbcleaningservice.com/get-clean-go-green.html
NCSE (National Center for Science Education) - http://ncse.com/climate 
    http://ncse.com/news/2013/04/evolution-climate-change-ngss-0014800 
NOAA - http://www.climate.gov/teaching/2014-national-climate-assessment-resources-educators 
acid rain - https://water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html
CLEAN - http://cleanet.org/index.html
NSTA -
http://www.nsta.org/climate/   http://www.nsta.org/about/positions/climatescience.aspx
PhET - http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/greenhouse
NASA -
http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/maps/

Middle School 

Powerpoint Presentations 
http://www.slideshare.net/guestf307ffe/greenhouse-gases-and-global-warming-presentation 
http://www.slideshare.net/gowoodard/global-warming-its-worse-than-we-thought 
http://www.slideshare.net/djhspence/climate-change-science-since-2007 
http://www.slideshare.net/u439/global-warming-2433040 

Online course
https://bendingthecurve.ucsd.edu/

Environmental Education
http://www.cde.ca.gov/pd/ca/sc/oeeceein.asp 

Sustainability Suggestions
http://www.epa.gov/sustainability/
https://www.homeadvisor.com/r/green-solutions-kids-adults/
http://www.improvenet.com/environmental-friendly-cleaners-for-your-home
http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/SmartWay.do
http://climatekids.nasa.gov/go-green/
http://www.epa.gov/watersense/
http://blog.intheswim.com/green-pools-operate-an-eco-friendly-pool/

http://mysterytacklebox.com/learn/protecting-fish-ocean-wildlife-from-pollution
http://www.bbcleaningservice.com/get-clean-go-green.html
book - https://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781466575325
http://www2.epa.gov/recycle/recycling-basics
 

Miscellaneous

Carbon footprint calculator, information
http://www.carbonfootprint.com/calculator.aspx 
http://www.nature.org/greenliving/carboncalculator/index.htm 
https://www3.epa.gov/carbon-footprint-calculator/
https://quiethut.com/ways-to-reduce-the-carbon-footprint/

Images of environmental change
https://earthshots.usgs.gov/earthshots/

Video 
https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/503113152/terra-nostra-a-multimedia-symphony-about-climate-c?ref=email_nextsteps_spotlight
Richard Anderson and MJC Media Services videos of presentations to MAPS (Modesto Area Partners in Science) - 
    http://share.yosemite.edu/view.aspx?i=1E7L    

ocean acidification - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgdlAt4CR-4 
glacier loss -
http://www.cnn.com/videos/tv/2015/07/25/exp-gps-hansen-sot-climate.cnn
https://share.yosemite.edu/view.aspx?i=11H2

Renewable and Alternate Energy Sources
http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=environment_about_ghg 
http://www.altenergy.org/ 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_energy 
http://www.autoinsurancecenter.com/students-guide-to-alternative-fuels.htm
https://usinsuranceagents.com/solar-power-at-home
Conservation and use of wind, solar and other renewable sources of energy should help to diminish the long term consequences of fossil fuel combustion.  The problem has been decades in the making and it will take many decades to reach a maximum atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration.  To turn the production of carbon dioxide around will probably require technological breakthroughs.  Two of the possible areas for research are nuclear fusion and artificial photosynthesis.  Commerical availability of these energy sources is probably at least 20 years away.  Historically, when there has been a need for a rapid advance in science and technology, the U.S. has responded with significant financial and people investments.  The Manhattan Project and the Apollo mission to the moon are two very successful examples of these dedicated efforts to reach desired goals.  Should we consider such an effort to find alternatives to fossil fuels?  The sites below provide some insight into the current research status of nuclear fusion and artificial photosynthesis.

nuclear fusion -
http://www.iter.org/
http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2014/02/12/275896094/scientists-say-their-giant-laser-has-produced-nuclear-fusion
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/high-powered-lasers-deliver-fusion-energy-breakthrough/

artificial photosynthesis - In Science magazine (Sept. 27, 1912, p. 384) G. Ciamician wrote:

"On the arid lands there will spring up industrial colonies without smoke and without smokestacks; forests of glass tubes will extend over the plains and glass buildings will rise everywhere; inside of these will take place the photochemical processes that hitherto have been the guarded secret of the plants, but that will have been mastered by human industry which will know how to make them bear even more abundant fruit than nature, for nature is not in a hurry and mankind is. And if in a distant future the supply of coal becomes completely exhausted, civilization will not be checked by that, for life and civilization will continue as long as the sun shines!"

Over 100 years later, we have not achieved Ciamician's prediction but the sites below provide an update on our progress.
http://phys.org/tags/artificial+photosynthesis/
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/artificial-photosynthesis-for-energy-takes-a-step-forward/
http://www.engineering.com/DesignerEdge/DesignerEdgeArticles/ArticleID/9567/A-Breakthrough-in-Artificial-Photosynthesis.aspx

JCAP - http://solarfuelshub.org/
Nocera - http://nocera.harvard.edu/Home
Ozin - https://raphazlab.wordpress.com/2014/01/09/geoffrey-a-ozin-artificial-photosynthesis-solar-fuels-from-the-sun-not-fossil-fuels-from-the-earth/
Brookhaven - https://www.bnl.gov/chemistry/AP/



Movies (commercial documentaries)
An Inconvenient Truth, sequel - https://inconvenientsequel.tumblr.com/
Cool It - http://lomborg.com/cool-it
The Great Global Warming Swindle - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Global_Warming_Swindle 

http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/climate-change/ 
Chasing Ice - http://www.chasingice.com/ 
The Burden - http://www.theburdenfilm.com/
Global Warming - https://answersingenesis.org/store/product/global-warming/?sku=30-9-225
Time to Choose - http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/review/time-choose-telluride-review-821204
Before the Flood - https://www.beforetheflood.com/
Merchants of Doubt - http://sonyclassics.com/merchantsofdoubt/

Part of the reason for studying history is to understand the causes of events that appear in hindsight to have been the wrong paths for civilization to have taken.  Perhaps the best historical analog to climate change has been the issue of freons and their impact on the ozone layer.  Primitive data in the early 1970's predicted that freons would negatively impact the ozone layer and among other negative effects result in an increase in skin cancer.  The world heeded the scientific alerts and reacted in a fairly timely manner to phase out the use of freons.  Data show that in fact the ozone layer was being impacted by freons including the production of an ozone hole over Antarctica with negative consequences on life.  Fortunately the actions taken worldwide have limited the damage and there is now evidence that the ozone depletion recently reached a maximum and is now decreasing.  The lesson for climate change has not sunk in, however, as the world for the most part is doing little to reverse fossil fuel consumption.

 

The Ozone HoleThe Ozone Issue 
http://www.ozonelayer.noaa.gov/
https://www.epa.gov/ozone-layer-protection
https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ozone_en
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/ozone-depletion/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_layer     
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_depletion 

Books
http://cen.acs.org/articles/90/i50/Michael-Manns-Hockey-Stick.html 
    http://www.amazon.com/Hockey-Stick-Climate-Wars-Dispatches/dp/023115254X  
http://www.amazon.com/Climate-Smart-Energy-Wise-Advancing/dp/1483304477
Atmosphere of Hope: Searching for Solutions to the Climate Crisis Hardcover – October 6, 2015, by Tim Flannery
Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming, Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway

Geoengineering  
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoengineering 
http://geo-engineering.blogspot.com/ 
http://nas-sites.org/americasclimatechoices/

Lectures
Modesto Area Partners in Science (MAPS) events -  https://www.mjc.edu/instruction/sme/maps.php
    http://murov.info/maps.htm


Modesto Junior College Science Colloquium - https://www.mjc.edu/instruction/sme/colloquium.php

Advocacy organizations 
   
Regional Economic Models, Inc. REMI (National and Dividend Fee Carbon Tax)
      http://citizensclimatelobby.org/

       https://dv7gcmvxe5e8l.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/REMI-National-SUMMARY.pdf
       https://dv7gcmvxe5e8l.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/The-Economic-Climate-Fiscal-Power-and-Demographic-Impact-of-a-National-Fee-and-Dividend-Carbon-Tax-6.9.14.pdf
       https://citizensclimatelobby.org/remi-report/
       https://citizensclimatelobby.org/carbon-fee-and-dividend/

Organizations Fighting for a Better Climate (from: Atmosphere of Hope: Searching for Solutions to the Climate Crisis Hardcover – October 6, 2015, by Tim Flannery

Climate Communications & Research Organizations
http://www.carbontracker.org/
http://climatecolab.org/
http://www.climatecouncil.org.au/
http://climateoutreach.org/
http://www.climateworks.org/
http://www.rtcc.org/

Climate Advocacy
http://www.1millionwomen.com.au/
https://www.acf.org.au/
http://careclimatechange.org/
http://www.ceres.org/
http://citizensclimatelobby.org/
https://www.climaterealityproject.org/

Climate Action Networks
http://climatenetwork.org/

Renewable Energy
http://www.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/
http://www.irena.org/
https://irena.org/climatechange
http://www.ren21.net/
http://solar-aid.org/about
http://www.solarcitizens.org.au/

Divestment
http://350.org/
http://divestinvest.org/

Climate Youth Movements
http://www.aycc.org.au/
http://www.ourclimate.ca/
http://ukycc.org/

Exploring Matter:  An Interactive, Inexpensive Chemistry Exhibit for Museums
(contains 21 stations with 3 containing climate change related materials)
        http://murov.info/EM-TOC.htm

 

Postscript:

 

In 1908, Svante Arrhenius publised a book entitled Worlds in the Making that contained the following remarks:
"That the atmospheric envelopes limit the heat losses from the planets had been suggested about 1800 by the great French physicist Fourier. His ideas were further developed afterwards by Pouillet and Tyndall. Their theory has been styled the hot-house theory, because they thought that the atmosphere acted after the manner of the glass panes of hot-houses."
"... any doubling of the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air would raise the temperature of the earth's surface by 4�; and if the carbon dioxide were increased fourfold, the temperature would rise by 8�."
"We often hear lamentations that the coal stored up in the earth is wasted by the present generation without any thought of the future, and we are terrified by the awful destruction of life and property which has followed the volcanic eruptions of our days. We may find a kind of consolation in the consideration that here, as in every other case, there is good mixed with the evil. By the influence of the increasing percentage of carbonic acid in the atmosphere, we may hope to enjoy ages with more equable and better climates, especially as regards the colder regions of the earth, ages when the earth will bring forth much more abundant crops than at present, for the benefit of rapidly propagating mankind."

It is now time for the jury to reach its verdict.  Is it important to begin a phase out of fossil fuels?  The verdict is in your hands.  Remember that there is a possibility that the quality of life on earth depends on the decision.

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