Properties of Solvents Used in Organic Chemistry*

On 8/19/20, a compilation of boiling points, melting points, densities and refractive indices for 1000 organic compounds has been uploaded to http://murov.info/orgcmpds.htm .   This site is still work in progress but near completion. Please also note that on 3/30/20, a table with most of the data below has been uploaded that has sortable columns (click on the column heading).  http://murov.info/orgsolvsort.htm .   However the links below the tables on this site are not included on the sortable table site. 

The values in the table below except as noted have been extracted from online and hardbound compilations . Values for relative polarity, eluant strength, threshold limits and vapor pressure have been extracted from: Christian Reichardt, Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry, Wiley-VCH Publishers, 3rd ed., 2003, and the chemidplus site  For Spectra of Solvents and other sites with properties of organic compounds, jump to the bottom of the solvent tables.    For an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Manual with experiments and exercises, see: http://murov.info/orglab.htm .  For a Chemistry Directory, see:   http://murov.info/webercises.htm  
*(Note:  The title of this site was changed from the original Properties of Organic Solvents to the present title because the "US Patent and Trademark Office have relied on the document to assert that water is an organic solvent."). 
For those of you who conduct or organize seminars, links to many Powerpoint Preshows, exercises and challenges that can be used while audiences await the start of the seminar are available at: 
http://murov.info/PPTPreshows.htm
.

Please report any errors to murovs@yosemite.edu
For addtional chemistry, science and other web sites, please visit
http://murov.info

For recently posted sites, please visit:  http://murov.info/orgchemrxnexe.htmhttp://murov.info/timelines.htm , http://murov.info/organicmilestones.htm, Photophysical properties of organic compounds - http://murov.info/photophys.htm
.


The tables below were posted (10/23/98), revised (07/28/09) and last modified (08/19/20) by Steve Murov, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, Modesto Junior College. 

 Table 1 arranged alphabetically
 Table 2 arranged according to increasing polarity
 Spectra links
 Chemical Property links  (and miscellaneous) 

TABLE 1

Solvent formula boiling point (oC) melting point (oC)  density 
(g/mL)
solubility in H2O1  (g/100g) relative
polarity2
eluant strength3threshold limits4 (ppm) vapor
pressure
20oC (hPa)
dipole
moment
  (D)
dielectric
constant
viscosity
10-3 Pa s
acetic acidC2H4O2 118 16.6 1.049 M 0.648 >1 10 15.3 1.68 6.2 1.12
acetone C3H6O 56.2 -94.3 0.786 M 0.355 0.56 500 240 2.85 21 0.30
acetonitrile C2H3N 81.6 -46 0.786 M 0.460 0.65 20 97 3.5 37.5 0.34
acetyl acetone C5H8O2 140.4 -23 0.975 16 0.571      3 3.0 23  
2-aminoethanol C2H7NO 170.9 10.5 1.018 M0.651   3 0.53 2.3 - 2.6 37.7 20.8
aniline C6H7N 184.4 -6.0 1.022 3.40.420   2 0.4 1.6 6.8 3.8
anisoleC7H8O 153.7 -37.5 0.996 0.10 0.198      3.5* 1.4 4.3  
benzene C6H6 80.1 5.5 0.879 0.18 0.111 0.32 0.5 101 0 2.3 0.60
benzonitrile C7H5N 205 -13 0.996 0.20.333   10 12 4.1 26 1.27
benzyl alcohol C7H8O 205.4 -15.3 1.042 3.50.608      0.094* 1.7 13 5.47
1-butanol C4H10O 117.6 -89.5 0.81 7.7 0.586   20 6.3 1.7 17.5 2.59
2-butanolC4H10O 99.5 -114.7 0.808 18.10.506   100  18.3* 1.7 17.3 3.1
i-butanolC4H10O 107.9 -108.2 0.803 8.50.552      10.5* 1.8 17.9 6.68
2-butanone C4H8O 79.6 -86.3 0.805 25.6 0.327 0.51 200 105 2.8 18.6 0.41
t-butyl alcohol  C4H10O 82.2 25.5 0.786 M 0.389   100 41 1.7 12.4 3.35
carbon disulfide CS2 46.3 -111.6 1.263 0.2 0.065 0.15  10 400 0 2.6 0.36
carbon tetrachloride CCl4 76.7 -22.4 1.594 0.08  0.052 0.18 5 120 0 2.3 0.90
chlorobenzeneC6H5Cl 132 -45.6 1.106 0.050.188 0.30 10 12 1.54 5.7 0.75
chloroform  CHCl3 61.2 -63.5 1.498 0.8 0.259   10 210 1.0 4.8 0.54
cyclohexane C6H12 80.7 6.6 0.779 0.005 0.006 0.04 100 104 0 2 0.89
cyclohexanolC6H12O 161.1 25.2 0.962 4.2 0.509   50 1.2 1.9 15  
cyclohexanoneC6H10O 155.6 -16.4 0.948 2.3 0.281   25 5 2.9 15 2.00
di-n-butylphthalate C16H22O4 340 -35 1.049 0.0011 0.272           16.6
1,1-dichloroethaneC2H4Cl2 57.3 -97.0 1.176 0.50.269   100 240 1.8 10  
1,2-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 83.5 -35.4 1.235 0.87 0.327      79* 1.8 10.4 0.78
diethylamine C4H11N 56.3 -48 0.706 M 0.145 0.63 5 260 1.2 3.8 0.32
diethylene glycol C4H10O3 245 -10 1.118 M 0.713     0.027 2.3 31.8 30.2
diglyme C6H14O3 162 -64 0.945 M 0.244       1.9 7.23 1.88
dimethoxyethane (glyme) C4H10O2 85 -58 0.868 M 0.231       1.7 7.3 1.1
N,N-dimethylanilineC8H11N 194.2 2.4 0.956 0.140.179            
dimethylformamide (DMF) C3H7NO 153 -61 0.944 M 0.386   10 3.5 3.8 37 0.80
dimethylphthalate C10H10O4 283.8 1 1.190 0.430.309            
dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) C2H6OS 189 18.4 1.092 M 0.444 0.75    0.61* 3.9 46.7 2.00
dioxane  C4H8O2 101.1 11.8 1.033 M 0.164 0.56 20 41 0.4 2 1.18
ethanol  C2H6O 78.5 -114.1 0.789 M 0.654 0.88 100 59 1.7 24 1.08
ether C4H10O 34.6 -116.3 0.713 7.5 0.117 0.38 400 587 1.25 4.3 0.22
ethyl acetate C4H8O2 77 -83.6 0.894 8.7 0.228 0.58 400 97 1.78 6.0 0.43
ethyl acetoacetate C6H10O3 180.4 -80 1.028 2.9 0.577      0.78*      
ethyl benzoate C9H10O2 213 -34.6 1.047 0.070.228       2.0 6.0  
ethylene glycol  C2H6O2 197 -13 1.115 M 0.790 1.11    0.092* 2.3 37.7 16.1
glycerin C3H8O3 290 17.8 1.261 M 0.812       2.7 42.5 934
heptane C7H16 98 -90.6 0.684 0.0003 0.012   400 48 0 1.9 0.39
1-heptanol C7H16O 176.4 -35 0.819 0.17 0.549       1.7 12 6.0
hexane C6H14 69 -95 0.655 0.0014 0.009 0.01 50 160 0 1.9 0.29
1-hexanol C6H14O 158 -46.7 0.814 0.59 0.559      0.22*   12.5 0.59
methanol CH4O 64.6 -98 0.791 M 0.762 0.95 200 128 1.6 33 0.54
methyl acetateC3H6O2 56.9 -98.1  0.933 24.4 0.253    200 220 1.7 6.68 0.36
methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) C5H12O 55.2 -109 0.741 4.8 0.124 0.20    250* 1.4 2.6 0.36
methylene chloride CH2Cl2 39.8 -96.7 1.326 1.32 0.309 0.42 50 475 1.6 9.0 0.42
1-octanol C8H18O 194.4 -15 0.827 0.096 0.537       1.7 10.3 7.4
pentane C5H12 36.1 -129.7 0.626 0.004  0.009 0.00 600 573 0 1.84 0.23
1-pentanolC5H12O 138.0 -78.2 0.814 2.2 0.568      2.2* 5.7 14 3.5
2-pentanolC5H12O 119.0 -50 0.810 4.5 0.488      6.1* 1.7 13.7 3.5
3-pentanolC5H12O 115.3 -8 0.821 5.1 0.463      8.8* 1.7 13.3  
2-pentanoneC5H10O 102.3 -76.9 0.809 4.3 0.321      35.4* 2.7 15.4 0.50
3-pentanone C5H12O 101.7 -39.8 0.814 3.4 0.265 200  37.7* 2.8 17.0  
1-propanol C3H8O 97 -126 0.803 M 0.617 0.82    21* 1.68 22 1.95
2-propanol C3H8O 82.4 -88.5 0.785 M 0.546 0.82 400 44 1.66 19 2.07
pyridine C5H5N 115.5 -42 0.982 M 0.302 0.71 5 20 2.2 13 0.88
tetrahydrofuran(THF) C4H8O 66 -108.4 0.886 30 or M5 0.207 0.57 200 200 1.63 7.5 0.46
toluene C7H8 110.6 -93 0.867 0.05 0.099 0.29 50 29 0.36 2.4 0.55
water H2O 100.00 0.00 0.998 M 1.000 >>1    17.5 1.85 80.1 0.89
water, heavy  D2O 101.3 4 1.107 M 0.991     15 1.84 78.3 1.10
p-xylene C8H10 138.3 13.3 0.861 0.02 0.074 0.26 100 15 0 2.27 0.65

1    M = miscible.
2    The values for relative polarity are normalized from measurements of solvent shifts of absorption spectra and were
      extracted from Christian Reichardt, Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry, Wiley-VCH Publishers, 3rd ed., 2003.
3     Snyder's empirical eluant strength parameter for alumina.  Extracted from Reichardt, page 495.
4   Threshold limits for exposure.  Extracted from Reichardt, pages 501-502.
5   https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/tetrahydrofuran#section=Solubility
*    25oC

TABLE 2

Solvent formula boiling point (oC) melting point
(oC) 
density 
(g/mL)
solubility
in H2O1
 (g/100g)
relative
polarity2
eluant strength3 threshold limits4 (ppm) vapor pressure 20oC (hPa) dipole
moment
  (D)
dielectric
constant
viscosity
10-3 Pa s
cyclohexane C6H12 80.7 6.6 0.779 0.005 0.006 0.04 100 104 0 2 0.89
pentane C5H12 36.1 -129.7 0.626 0.0039  0.009 0.00 600 573 0 1.84 0.23
hexane C6H14 69 -95 0.655 0.0014 0.009 0.01 50 160 0 1.9 0.29
heptane C7H16 98 -90.6 0.684 0.0003 0.012   400 48 0 1.9 0.39
carbon tetrachloride CCl4 76.7 -22.4 1.594 0.08  0.052 0.18 5 120 0 2.3 0.90
carbon disulfide CS2 46.3 -111.6 1.263 0.2 0.065 0.15  10 400 0 2.6 0.36
p-xylene C8H10 138.3 13.3 0.861 0.02 0.074 0.26 100 150 2.27 0.65
toluene C7H8 110.6 -93 0.867 0.05 0.099 0.24 50 29 0.36 2.4 0.55
benzene C6H6 80.1 5.5 0.879 0.18 0.111 0.32 0.5 101 0 2.3 0.60
ether C4H10O 34.6 -116.3 0.713 7.5 0.117 0.38 400 587 1.25 4.3 0.22
methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) C5H12O 55.2 -109 0.741 4.8 0.124 0.20    250* 1.4 2.6 0.36
diethylamine C4H11N 56.3 -48 0.706 M 0.145 0.63 5 2601.2 3.8 0.32
dioxane  C4H8O2 101.1 11.8 1.033 M 0.164 0.56 20 41 0.4 2 1.18
N,N-dimethylaniline C8H11N 194.2 2.4 0.956 0.14 0.179            
chlorobenzene C6H5Cl 132 -45.6 1.106 0.05 0.188 0.30 10 12 1.54 5.7 0.75
anisole C7H8O 153.7 -37.5 0.996 0.10 0.198      3.5* 1.4 4.3 1.05
tetrahydrofuran  (THF) C4H8O 66 -108.4 0.886 30 or M5 0.207 0.57 200 200 1.63 7.5 0.46
ethyl acetate C4H8O2 77 -83.6 0.894 8.7 0.228 0.57 400 97 1.78 6.0 0.43
ethyl benzoate C9H10O2 213 -34.6 1.047 0.07 0.228       2.0 6.0  
dimethoxyethane (glyme) C4H10O2 85 -58 0.868 M 0.231       1.7 7.3 1.1
diglyme C6H14O3 162 -64 0.945 M 0.244       1.9 7.23 1.88
methyl acetate C3H6O2 56.9 -98.1 0.933 24.4 0.253    200 220 1.7 6.68 0.36
chloroform  CHCl3 61.2 -63.5 1.498 0.8 0.259 0.40 10 210 1.0 4.8 0.54
3-pentanone C5H12O 101.7 -39.8 0.814 3.4 0.265   200  37.7* 2.8 17.0  
1,1-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 57.3 -97.0 1.176 0.5 0.269   100 240 1.8 10  
di-n-butyl phthalate C16H22O4 340 -35 1.049 0.0011 0.272           16.6
cyclohexanone C6H10O 155.6 -16.4 0.948 2.3 0.281   25 5 2.9 15 2.00
pyridine C5H5N 115.5 -42 0.982 M 0.302 0.71 5 20 2.2 13 0.88
dimethylphthalate C10H10O4 283.8 1 1.190 0.43 0.309            
methylene chloride CH2Cl2 39.8 -96.7 1.326 1.32 0.309 0.42 50 475 1.6 9.0 0.42
2-pentanone C5H10O 102.3 -76.9 0.809 4.3 0.321      35.4* 2.7 15.4 0.50
2-butanone C4H8O 79.6 -86.3 0.805 25.6 0.327 0.51 200 105 2.8 18.6 0.41
1,2-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 83.5 -35.4 1.235 0.87 0.327       79* 1.8 10.4 0.78
benzonitrile C7H5N 205 -13 0.996 0.2 0.333   10 12 4.1 26 1.27
acetone C3H6O 56.2 -94.3 0.786 M 0.355 0.56 500 240 2.85 21 0.30
dimethylformamide (DMF) C3H7NO 153 -61 0.944 M 0.386   10 3.5 3.8 37 0.80
t-butyl alcohol  C4H10O 82.2 25.5 0.786 M 0.389   100 41 1.7 12.4 3.35
aniline C6H7N 184.4 -6.0 1.022 3.4 0.420   2 0.4 1.6 6.8 3.8
dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) C2H6OS 189 18.4 1.092 M 0.444 0.75    0.61* 3.9 46.7 2.00
acetonitrile C2H3N 81.6 -46 0.786 M 0.460 0.65 20 97 3.5 37.5 0.34
3-pentanol C5H12O 115.3 -8 0.821 5.1 0.463      8.8* 1.7 13.3  
2-pentanol C5H12O 119.0 -50 0.810 4.5 0.488       6.1* 1.7 13.7 3.5
2-butanol C4H10O 99.5 -114.7 0.808  18.1 0.506   100  18.3* 1.7 17.3 3.1
cyclohexanol C6H12O 161.1 25.2 0.962 4.2 0.509   50 1.2 1.9 15  
1-octanol C8H18O 194.4 -15 0.827 0.096 0.537       1.7 10.3 7.4
2-propanol C3H8O 82.4 -88.5 0.785 M 0.546 0.82 400 44 1.66 19 2.07
1-heptanol C7H16O 176.4 -35 0.819 0.17 0.549       1.7 12 6.0
i-butanol C4H10O 107.9 -108.2 0.803 8.5 0.552       1.8 17.9 6.68
1-hexanol C6H14O 158 -46.7 0.814 0.59 0.559      0.22*   12.5 4.6
1-pentanol C5H12O 138.0 -78.2 0.814 2.2 0.568       2.2* 5.7 14 3.5
acetyl acetone C5H8O2 140.4 -23 0.975 16 0.571       3 3.0 23  
ethyl acetoacetate C6H10O3 180.4 -80 1.028 2.9 0.577       0.78*      
1-butanol C4H10O 117.6 -89.5 0.81 7.7 0.586   20 6.31.7 17.5 2.59
benzyl alcohol C7H8O 205.4 -15.3 1.042 3.5 0.608       0.094* 1.7 13 5.47
1-propanol C3H8O 97 -126 0.803 M 0.617 0.82     21* 1.68 22 1.95
acetic acid C2H4O2 118 16.6 1.049 M 0.648 >1 10 15.3 1.68 6.2 1.12
2-aminoethanol C2H7NO 170.9 10.5 1.018 M 0.651   3 0.53 2.3 - 2.6 37.7 20.8
ethanol  C2H6O 78.5 -114.1 0.789 M 0.654 0.88 1000 59 1.7 24 1.08
diethylene glycol C4H10O3 245 -10 1.118 M 0.713     0.027 2.3 31.8 30.2
methanol CH4O 64.6 -98 0.791 M 0.762 0.95 200 128 1.6 33 0.54
ethylene glycol  C2H6O2 197 -13 1.115 M 0.790 1.11     2.3 37.7 16.1
glycerin C3H8O3 290 17.8 1.261 M 0.812       2.7 42.5 934
water, heavy  D2O 101.3 4 1.107 M 0.991      151.84 78.3 1.10
water H2O 100.00 0.00 0.998 M 1.000 >>1    17.5 1.85 80.1 0.89

Chemical Properties

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            Shriner, et.al, Systematic Identification of Organic Compounds, manual for identifying organic compounds especially with the use of derivatives,
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            Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dictionary_of_chemical_formulas

                            
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                  click on or copy and paste:   https://app.knovel.com/web/view/itable/show.v/rcid:kpKCTE000X/cid:kt002VLXT1/viewerType:itble/
                        To filter the listing, click on the triangle following the desirred parameter, select filter and then enter the limits of the desired parameter (<, > or =) and hit enter.
                   (7274 Compounds in sortable tables) - https://app.knovel.com/web/view/itable/show.v/rcid:kpKS000009/cid:kt00395F16/viewerType:itble/

   

   D. Solvent Properties
        http://murov.info/orgsolvents.htm     http://murov.info/orgsolvsort.htm
        https://www.organicdivision.org/ama/orig/organic_solvents.html
 
        http://www.stenutz.eu/chem/
        http://www.wiredchemist.com/chemistry/data/physical_character_solvents.html 
       
https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/OrgPage/solvent.htm
        https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/chemistry/stockroom-reagents/learning-center/technical-library/solvent-properties.html
        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solvent
        https://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/williams/Solvent%20properties.pdf
        Knovel Critical Tables (If using Explorer, it must be newest version)
                  (21824 compounds in sortable tables) - login required
  -  initial registration or login:  https://app.knovel.com/web/register.v ,
                  already registered login: 
https://app.knovel.com/web/login.v ,

                  click on or copy and paste:   https://app.knovel.com/web/view/itable/show.v/rcid:kpKCTE000X/cid:kt002VLY34/viewerType:itble/
                        To filter the listing, click on the triangle following the desirred parameter, select filter and then enter the limits of the desired parameter (<, > or =) and hit enter.
            ChemSynthesis - https://www.chemsynthesis.com/

       
  nmr of deuterated solvents 
            http://www.wiredchemist.com/chemistry/data/common_nmr_solvents.html 
            http://www2.chem.umd.edu/nmr/reference/isotope_solvent.pdf

  E.  Chemical Education Journals
        J. Chem. Ed. http://pubs.acs.org/journal/jceda8
                                       http://pubs.acs.org/loi/jceda8 
        Education in Chemistry - http://www.rsc.org/eic/
                                              http://www.rsc.org/eic/e-magazine
        Chem13 News - https://uwaterloo.ca/chem13-news-magazine/


  F. Chemistry Directory -  https://organicchemistrydata.org/
       http://murov.info/webercises.htm
 

  G. Organic Chemistry Directory - http://murov.info/orgchem.htm 

  H. Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry - http://murov.info/Reaction-Map.htm 
       Exercise based on the above - http://murov.info/orgchemrxnexe.htm

  I. Literature search -
         http://www.researchgate.net/ 
  
  J. Spectra

        1. IR - Liquid or Solution
            NIMC site -
http://sdbs.db.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.cgi 
   
           NIST site - http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/ 
            PSLC - 
http://pslc.uwsp.edu/
           
Aldrich, Sigma - https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/united-states.html
           Gasmet - https://www.gasmet.com/de/products/tools/spectrum-library/
            
       2. IR - Gas Phase
            NIST -  http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/ 
            Gasmet - https://www.gasmet.com/de/products/tools/spectrum-library/

       3.. HNMR - Experimental 
            NIMC site -
http://sdbs.db.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.cgi?lang=eng
               PSLC -  http://pslc.uwsp.edu/
              
Aldrich, Sigma - https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/united-states.html 
   
                     
            Solvents - http://www2.chem.umd.edu/nmr/reference/isotope_solvent.pdf
   
         Deuterated solvents - http://www.wiredchemist.com/chemistry/data/common_nmr_solvents.html 

                bioorganics - http://mmcd.nmrfam.wisc.edu/mmcdbrowse.html
   
       

       4. HNMR - Calculated
            ChemExper Chem Directory -  http://www.chemexper.com/ 
            nmrdb - http://www.nmrdb.org/ 
           

       5. 13CNMR - Experimental
            NIMC site -
http://sdbs.db.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.cgi?lang=eng
           
PSLC -  http://pslc.uwsp.edu/
              
           
       6. Mass
            NIMC site - http://sdbs.db.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.cgi?lang=eng

            PSLC -  http://pslc.uwsp.edu/
                       
            Pherobase - http://www.pherobase.com/database/compound/compounds-index.php 

            human metabolites - http://www.hmdb.ca/

       7. UV-Vis
            NIST site - http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/ 
            OMLC - http://omlc.org/spectra/PhotochemCAD/html/alpha.html
           
       8. Bibliography - http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/spectra.html

       9. Polymer spectra - http://pslc.uwsp.edu/ 

       10.  Photophysical properties of organic compounds - http://murov.info/photophys.htm

     11.  Fee based KnowItAll spectral database - https://sciencesolutions.wiley.com/knowitall-u/

   K.  Miscellaneous

         1.  Acid Base Indicator properties
   
         https://www.compoundchem.com/2014/04/04/the-colours-chemistry-of-ph-indicators/
            https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PH_indicator
            https://www.sciencecompany.com/ph_indicator_ranges.aspx
            https://www.thoughtco.com/edible-ph-indicators-color-chart-603655
            https://www.techknow.org.uk/wiki/index.php?title=PH
            http://foundoutaboutchemistry.blogspot.com/2016/05/acid-base-indicator-charts.html

Other websites by this author are available at:  http://murov.info/

Organic chemistry web sites by this author include: 

Organic chemistry milestones:  http://murov.info/organicmilestones.htm

Organic chemistry directory:  http://murov.info/orgchem.htm 

Online organic laboratory text:  http://murov.info/orglab/orglab.htm

Organic chemistry exercises (also included in organic laboratory text):  http://murov.info/orglab/exercises.htm

 

For a larger image and the keys for the Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry, please visit:  http://murov.info/Reaction-Map.htm .  For exercise based on the reaction-map, please visit:  http://murov.info/orgchemrxnexe.htm .


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