Properties of Organic Solvents

The values in the table below except as noted have been extracted from online and hardbound compilations . Values for relative polarity, eluant strength, threshold limits and vapor pressure have been extracted from: Christian Reichardt, Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry, Wiley-VCH Publishers, 3rd ed., 2003, and the chemidlite site For Spectra of Solvents and other sites with properties of organic compounds, jump to the bottom of the solvent tables.  For an Organic Chemistry Directory, see:  http://murov.info/orgchem.htm .  For a Chemistry Directory, see:   http://murov.info/webercises.htm 

For additional web sites by Murov, please visit:  http://murov.info .  Sites include chemistry related information as well as several recently posted Powerpoint pre-shows downloadable for use with audiences waiting for the beginning of a presentation ( http://murov.info/PPTPreshows.htm ), a climate change directory with editorial comments ( http://murov.info/climatechange.htm ), a few unusual periodic tables -  http://murov.info/periodictables.htm ,  a list of handy bookmarks http://murov.info/handy.htm and a reaction-map of organic chemistry http://murov.info/Reaction-Map.htm Free downloadable lab book for the college level organic chemistry course just  posted 02/27/14.  
Experiments and Exercises in Organic Chemistry:  A Challenge Oriented Approach -
http://murov.info/orglab/orglab.htm

  

The tables below were posted (10/23/98),  revised (07/28/09) and updated (02/27/14) by Steve Murov, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry.  Last link check on 10/13/13 using W3C Validator.

 Table 1 arranged alphabetically, Table 2 arranged according to increasing polarity

TABLE 1

Solvent formula boiling point (oC) melting point (oC)  density 
(g/mL)
solubility in H2O1  (g/100g) relative
polarity2
eluant strength3threshold limits4 (ppm) vapor pressure 20oC (hPa)
acetic acidC2H4O2 118 16.6 1.049 M 0.648 >1 10 15.3
acetone C3H6O 56.2 -94.3 0.786 M 0.355 0.56 500 240
acetonitrile C2H3N 81.6 -46 0.786 M 0.460 0.65 20 97
acetyl acetone C5H8O2 140.4 -23 0.975 16 0.571      3
2-aminoethanol C2H7NO 170.9 10.5 1.018 M0.651   3 0.53
aniline C6H7N 184.4 -6.0 1.022 3.40.420   2 0.4
anisoleC7H8O 153.7 -37.5 0.996 0.100.198      3.5*
benzene C6H6 80.1 5.5 0.879 0.18 0.111 0.32 0.5 101
benzonitrile C7H5N 205 -13 0.996 0.20.333   10 12
benzyl alcohol C7H8O 205.4 -15.3 1.042 3.50.608      0.094*
1-butanol C4H10O 117.6 -89.5 0.81 7.7 0.586   20 6.3
2-butanolC4H10O 99.5 -114.7 0.808 18.10.506   100  18.3*
i-butanolC4H10O 107.9 -108.2 0.803 8.50.552      10.5*
2-butanone C4H8O 79.6 -86.3 0.805 25.6 0.327 0.51 200 105
t-butyl alcohol  C4H10O 82.2 25.5 0.786 M 0.389   100 41
carbon disulfide CS2 46.3 -111.6 1.263 0.2 0.065 0.15  10 400
carbon tetrachloride CCl4 76.7 -22.4 1.594 0.08  0.052 0.18 5 120
chlorobenzeneC6H5Cl 132 -45.6 1.106 0.050.188 0.30 10 12
chloroform  CHCl3 61.2 -63.5 1.498 0.8 0.259   10 210
cyclohexane C6H12 80.7 6.6 0.779 0.005 0.006 0.04 100 104
cyclohexanolC6H12O 161.1 25.2 0.962 4.20.509   50 1.2
cyclohexanoneC6H10O 155.6 -16.4 0.948 2.3 0.281   25 5
di-n-butylphthalate C16H22O4 340 -35 1.049 0.0011 0.272      
1,1-dichloroethaneC2H4Cl2 57.3 -97.0 1.176 0.50.269   100 240
1,2-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 83.5 -35.4 1.235 0.87 0.327      79*
diethylamine C4H11N 56.3 -48 0.706 M 0.145 0.63 5 260
diethylene glycol C4H10O3 245 -10 1.118 M 0.713     0.027
diglyme C6H14O3 162 -64 0.945 M 0.244      
dimethoxyethane (glyme) C4H10O2 85 -58 0.868 M 0.231      
N,N-dimethylanilineC8H11N 194.2 2.4 0.956 0.140.179      
dimethylformamide (DMF) C3H7NO 153 -61 0.944 M 0.386   10 3.5
dimethylphthalate C10H10O4 283.8 1 1.190 0.430.309      
dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) C2H6OS 189 18.4 1.092 M 0.444 0.75    0.61*
dioxane  C4H8O2 101.1 11.8 1.033 M 0.164 0.56 20 41
ethanol  C2H6O 78.5 -114.1 0.789 M 0.654 0.88 100 59
ether C4H10O 34.6 -116.3 0.713 7.5 0.117 0.38 400 587
ethyl acetate C4H8O2 77 -83.6 0.894 8.7 0.228 0.58 400 97
ethyl acetoacetate C6H10O3 180.4 -80 1.028 2.9 0.577      0.78*
ethyl benzoate C9H10O2 213 -34.6 1.047 0.070.228      
ethylene glycol  C2H6O2 197 -13 1.115 M 0.790 1.11    0.092*
glycerin C3H8O3 290 17.8 1.261 M 0.812      
heptane C7H16 98 -90.6 0.684 0.0003 0.012   400 48
1-heptanol C7H16O 176.4 -35 0.819 0.17 0.549      
hexane C6H14 69 -95 0.655 0.0014 0.009 0.01 50 160
1-hexanol C6H14O 158 -46.7 0.814 0.59 0.559      0.22*
methanol CH4O 64.6 -98 0.791 M 0.762 0.95 200 128
methyl acetateC3H6O2 56.9 -98.1  0.933 24.40.253    200 220
methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) C5H12O 55.2 -109 0.741 4.8 0.124 0.20    250*
methylene chloride CH2Cl2 39.8 -96.7 1.326 1.32 0.309 0.42 50 475
1-octanol C8H18O 194.4 -15 0.827 0.096 0.537      
pentane C5H12 36.1 -129.7 0.626 0.004  0.009 0.00 600 573
1-pentanolC5H12O 138.0 -78.2 0.814 2.20.568      2.2*
2-pentanolC5H12O 119.0 -50 0.810 4.50.488      6.1*
3-pentanolC5H12O 115.3 -8 0.821 5.10.463      8.8*
2-pentanoneC5H10O 102.3 -76.9 0.809 4.3 0.321      35.4*
3-pentanone C5H12O 101.7 -39.8 0.814 3.4 0.265   200  37.7*
1-propanol C3H8O 97 -126 0.803 M 0.617 0.82    21*
2-propanol C3H8O 82.4 -88.5 0.785 M 0.546 0.82 400 44
pyridine C5H5N 115.5 -42 0.982 M 0.302 0.71 5 20
tetrahydrofuran(THF) C4H8O 66 -108.4 0.886 30 0.207 0.57 200 200
toluene C7H8 110.6 -93 0.867 0.05 0.099 0.29 50 29
water H2O 100.00 0.00 0.998 M 1.000 >>1    17.5
water, heavy  D2O 101.3 4 1.107 M 0.991     15
p-xylene C8H10 138.3 13.3 0.861 0.02 0.074 0.26 100 15

1    M = miscible.
2    The values for relative polarity are normalized from measurements of solvent shifts of absorption spectra and were
      extracted from Christian Reichardt, Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry, Wiley-VCH Publishers, 3rd ed., 2003.
3     Snyder's empirical eluant strength parameter for alumina.  Extracted from Reichardt, page 495.
4   Threshold limits for exposure.  Extracted from Reichardt, pages 501-502.
*    25oC

TABLE 2

Solvent formula boiling point (oC) melting point (oC)  density 
(g/mL)
solubility in H2O1  (g/100g) relative
polarity2
eluant strength3 threshold limits4 (ppm) vapor pressure 20oC (hPa)
cyclohexane C6H12 80.7 6.6 0.779 0.005 0.006 0.04 100 104
pentane C5H12 36.1 -129.7 0.626 0.0039  0.009 0.00 600 573
hexane C6H14 69 -95 0.655 0.0014 0.009 0.01 50 160
heptane C7H16 98 -90.6 0.684 0.0003 0.012   400 48
carbon tetrachloride CCl4 76.7 -22.4 1.594 0.08  0.052 0.18 5 120
carbon disulfide CS2 46.3 -111.6 1.263 0.2 0.065 0.15  10 400
p-xylene C8H10 138.3 13.3 0.861 0.02 0.074 0.26 100 15
toluene C7H8 110.6 -93 0.867 0.05 0.099 0.24 50 29
benzene C6H6 80.1 5.5 0.879 0.18 0.111 0.32 0.5 101
ether C4H10O 34.6 -116.3 0.713 7.5 0.117 0.38 400 587
methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) C5H12O 55.2 -109 0.741 4.8 0.124 0.20    250*
diethylamine C4H11N 56.3 -48 0.706 M 0.145 0.63 5 260
dioxane  C4H8O2 101.1 11.8 1.033 M 0.164 0.56 20 41
N,N-dimethylaniline C8H11N 194.2 2.4 0.956 0.14 0.179      
chlorobenzene C6H5Cl 132 -45.6 1.106 0.05 0.188 0.30 10 12
anisole C7H8O 153.7 -37.5 0.996 0.10 0.198      3.5*
tetrahydrofuran  (THF) C4H8O 66 -108.4 0.886 30 0.207 0.57 200 200
ethyl acetate C4H8O2 77 -83.6 0.894 8.7 0.228 0.57 400 97
ethyl benzoate C9H10O2 213 -34.6 1.047 0.07 0.228      
dimethoxyethane (glyme) C4H10O2 85 -58 0.868 M 0.231      
diglyme C6H14O3 162 -64 0.945 M 0.244      
methyl acetate C3H6O2 56.9 -98.1 0.933 24.4 0.253    200 220
chloroform  CHCl3 61.2 -63.5 1.498 0.8 0.259 0.40 10 210
3-pentanone C5H12O 101.7 -39.8 0.814 3.4 0.265   200  37.7*
1,1-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 57.3 -97.0 1.176 0.5 0.269   100 240
di-n-butyl phthalate C16H22O4 340 -35 1.049 0.0011 0.272      
cyclohexanone C6H10O 155.6 -16.4 0.948 2.3 0.281   25 5
pyridine C5H5N 115.5 -42 0.982 M 0.302 0.71 5 20
dimethylphthalate C10H10O4 283.8 1 1.190 0.43 0.309      
methylene chloride CH2Cl2 39.8 -96.7 1.326 1.32 0.309 0.42 50 475
2-pentanone C5H10O 102.3 -76.9 0.809 4.3 0.321      35.4*
2-butanone C4H8O 79.6 -86.3 0.805 25.6 0.327 0.51 200 105
1,2-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 83.5 -35.4 1.235 0.87 0.327       79*
benzonitrile C7H5N 205 -13 0.996 0.2 0.333   10 12
acetone C3H6O 56.2 -94.3 0.786 M 0.355 0.56 500 240
dimethylformamide (DMF) C3H7NO 153 -61 0.944 M 0.386   10 3.5
t-butyl alcohol  C4H10O 82.2 25.5 0.786 M 0.389   100 41
aniline C6H7N 184.4 -6.0 1.022 3.4 0.420   2 0.4
dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) C2H6OS 189 18.4 1.092 M 0.444 0.75    0.61*
acetonitrile C2H3N 81.6 -46 0.786 M 0.460 0.65 20 97
3-pentanol C5H12O 115.3 -8 0.821 5.1 0.463      8.8*
2-pentanol C5H12O 119.0 -50 0.810 4.5 0.488       6.1*
2-butanol C4H10O 99.5 -114.7 0.808  18.1 0.506   100  18.3*
cyclohexanol C6H12O 161.1 25.2 0.962 4.2 0.509   50 1.2
1-octanol C8H18O 194.4 -15 0.827 0.096 0.537      
2-propanol C3H8O 82.4 -88.5 0.785 M 0.546 0.82 400 44
1-heptanol C7H16O 176.4 -35 0.819 0.17 0.549      
i-butanol C4H10O 107.9 -108.2 0.803 8.5 0.552      
1-hexanol C6H14O 158 -46.7 0.814 0.59 0.559      0.22*
1-pentanol C5H12O 138.0 -78.2 0.814 2.2 0.568       2.2*
acetyl acetone C5H8O2 140.4 -23 0.975 16 0.571       3
ethyl acetoacetate C6H10O3 180.4 -80 1.028 2.9 0.577       0.78*
1-butanol C4H10O 117.6 -89.5 0.81 7.7 0.586   20 6.3
benzyl alcohol C7H8O 205.4 -15.3 1.042 3.5 0.608       0.094*
1-propanol C3H8O 97 -126 0.803 M 0.617 0.82     21*
acetic acid C2H4O2 118 16.6 1.049 M 0.648 >1 10 15.3
2-aminoethanol C2H7NO 170.9 10.5 1.018 M 0.651   3 0.53
ethanol  C2H6O 78.5 -114.1 0.789 M 0.654 0.88 1000 59
diethylene glycol C4H10O3 245 -10 1.118 M 0.713     0.027
methanol CH4O 64.6 -98 0.791 M 0.762 0.95 200 128
ethylene glycol  C2H6O2 197 -13 1.115 M 0.790 1.11    
glycerin C3H8O3 290 17.8 1.261 M 0.812      
water, heavy  D2O 101.3 4 1.107 M 0.991      15
water H2O 100.00 0.00 0.998 M 1.000 >>1    17.5

Spectra (of solvents and other compounds) 

        1. IR - Liquid or Solution
            NIMC site -
http://sdbs.db.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.cgi 
               NIST site - http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/ 
            PSLC - 
http://pslc.uwsp.edu/
            RSC - http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/collections/spectroscopy
 
            fee based - https://ftirsearch.com/default3.htm 
   
         Chinese site - http://www.basechem.org/

        2. IR - Gas Phase
            NIST -  http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/ 
   
         ANSYCO - http://www.ansyco.de/CMS/frontend/index.php?idcatside=124 

        3. IR - Predicted
            Bio-Rad - http://www.knowitall.com/academic/default.asp
 

        4. HNMR - Experimental 
            NIMC site - http://sdbs.riodb.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.cgi?lang=eng
 
               PSLC -  http://pslc.uwsp.edu/
               RSC - http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/collections/spectroscopy
 
   
         Chinese site - http://www.basechem.org/
            
            Solvents - http://www.alsnotebook.com/chlorformtraces.html 
   
         Deuterated solvents - http://www.wiredchemist.com/chemistry/data/common_nmr_solvents.html 
               human metabolites - http://hmdb.ca/
            bioorganics - http://mmcd.nmrfam.wisc.edu/mmcdbrowse.html
   
         Spectral Data Base for Instructors - http://harned.chem.umn.edu/ 

        5. HNMR - Calculated
            ChemExper Chem Directory -  http://www.chemexper.com/ 
            nmrdb - http://www.nmrdb.org/ 
           
        6. 13CNMR - Experimental
            NIMC site - http://sdbs.riodb.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.cgi?lang=eng
 
           
PSLC -  http://pslc.uwsp.edu/
               RSC - http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/collections/spectroscopy
 

        7. Mass
            NIMC site -
http://sdbs.riodb.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.cgi?lang=eng 
            NIST site - http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/ 
           
PSLC -  http://pslc.uwsp.edu/
            RSC - http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/collections/spectroscopy 
            Chinese site - http://www.basechem.org/

            Pherobase - http://www.pherobase.com/database/compound/compounds-index.php 
            RSC - http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/collections/spectroscopy
 
           
human metabolites - http://hmdb.ca/

        8. UV-Vis
            NIST site - http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/ 
            OMLC - http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/PhotochemCAD/html/alpha.html   
            RSC - http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/collections/spectroscop
y 

        9. Bibliography - http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/spectra.html

        10. Polymer spectra - http://pslc.uwsp.edu/

 Chemistry sites with chemical properties

   A. Elements - Periodic Tables - WebElements - http://www.webelements.com/  
   
     http://murov.info/periodictables.htm 

   B. Compounds - Properties     

       1. Tabulation + MSDS
            Acros - http://www.acros.com/portal/alias__Rainbow/lang__en/tabID__21/DesktopDefault.aspx
            Alpha Chemical 
- http://www.alfa.com/en/go160w.pgm?srchtyp=product 
           
ChemExper Chem. Directory -  http://www.chemexper.com/ 
            Chemidplus
-  http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/
                        or  http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp
            Chemindex - http://ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/chemindex/search.html
            Chemspider - http://www.chemspider.com/
                               
http://www.chemspider.com/SimpleSearch.aspx
            EMD Chemicals - http://www.emdmillipore.com/chemicals/
 
            Fisher - https://new.fishersci.com/wps/portal/HOME 
            TCI America - http://www.tcichemicals.com/en/us/support-download/brochure/catalog.html
 

            Wikipedia -
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_organic_compounds
                            
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_inorganic_compounds
            Chemical Book -
http://www.chemicalbook.com/  

       2. MSDS
   
        Aldrich, Sigma - http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/chemistry.html 
           JT Baker & Mallinckrodt (primarily inorganic chemicals) -
                 http://www.mallbaker.com/Americas/catalog/default.asp 
            MSDS Solutions - http://www.msds.com/ 

            Vermont Safety Information Resources, Inc. - http://hazard.com/msds/ 
            MSDSprovider - http://www.msdsprovider.com/  
            Siri MSDS (and toxicology) http://siri.org/msds/ 

        3. Tabulation
            Knovel Critical Tables -
Free registration required (on registration form,
                   
http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/free_titles , or after clicking on
                http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/browse/display?_EXT_KNOVEL_DISPLAY_bookid=761
            
     select the Table for Basic Physical Properties of Chemical Compounds and register.
            Chemfate - http://srcinc.com/what-we-do/databaseforms.aspx?id=381
            Datalog - http://srcinc.com/what-we-do/databaseforms.aspx?id=379
           
Chemical Database - http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/ 
            National Physical Laboratory -
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/chemistry/3_3/3_3.html
              fee based -  http://why.knovel.com/
      http://www.hbcpnetbase.com/ 
            Chemland 21 - http://www.chemicalland21.com/listaz01.htm
            Chemblink http://www.chemblink.com/
            CIS - http://www.ilo.org/ilosearch/public/index.htm
 
            WolframAlpha - http://www.wolframalpha.com/
            LookChem - http://www.lookchem.com/
           
Human Metabolome Database - http://www.hmdb.ca/  
            Madison Metabolomics - http://mmcd.nmrfam.wisc.edu/ 
   
         UAkron - http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/
            PPSI - http://www.eqi.ethz.ch/en/ 
   
       EPA - http://www.epa.gov/chemview/      http://java.epa.gov/chemview 
                     http://www.epa.gov/dfe/saferingredients.htm 
            Toxnet - HSDB - http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB
                all Toxnet databases - http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/ 
            PubChem - https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

  C. Search for Compounds from Properties
        Acros - http://www.acros.com/portal/alias__Rainbow/lang__en/tabID__21/DesktopDefault.aspx
                    accepts -
formula, structure, molecular mass, bp, mp, refractive index, density, ir
   
     Aldrich - http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/search/substructure/SubstructureSearchPage 
                    accepts -
formula, structure, molecular mass, mp, bp, density
        ChemExper Chem Directory - http://www.chemexper.com/ 
                   
accepts - formula, structure, molecular mass, bp, mp, refractive index, density, ir, nmr            
        Chemspider - http://www.chemspider.com/PropertiesSearch.aspx 
                    accepts - formula, molecular mass
 
        Melting point and molecular mass search:  http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/    
                    accepts -  
formula, mp, bp
        Organic Chemistry Data Base - http://www.colby.edu/chemistry/cmp/cmp.html    
                    accepts -
formula, molecular mass, mp, bp, density, refractive index, ir, ms
        NIMC site -
http://sdbs.riodb.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.cgi?lang=eng  
                    accepts -
formula, molecular mass, ir, nmr, ms 
        Polymers - http://www.matweb.com/ 
                    *   http://www.goodfellowusa.com/
       
Knovel Critical Tables - Free registration required (on registration form,
                http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/free_titles , or after clicking on

            http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/browse/display?_EXT_KNOVEL_DISPLAY_bookid=761
           
select the Table for Basic Physical Properties of Chemical Compounds and register.
                Use the sort by ascending or descending order capability for any parameter and also the filter capability.
       
 Search for structure from name - http://www.commonchemistry.org/ 
       Mylims.com -  http://mylims.epfl.ch/lims/default/sample/search.jsp
                    accepts -formula, molecular, nmr     

   D. Solvent Properties
        http://murov.info/orgsolvents.htm 
        http://www.organicdivision.org/ama/orig/organic_solvents.html
 
        http://solvdb.ncms.org/solvdb.htm  
        http://www.wiredchemist.com/chemistry/data/physical_character_solvents.html 
       
http://www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/OrgPage/tables.htm
        Knovel Critical Tables - Free registration required (on registration form,
                http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/free_titles , or after clicking on

            http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/browse/display?_EXT_KNOVEL_DISPLAY_bookid=761
           
select the Table for Basic Physical Properties of Common Solvents and register.
       
  nmr of deuterated solvents 
            http://verzeichnisse.freepage.de/chemistry/spec_en.htm 
            http://www.wiredchemist.com/chemistry/data/common_nmr_solvents.html 

  E.  Chemical Education Journals
        J. Chem. Ed. http://pubs.acs.org/journal/jceda8
                                       http://pubs.acs.org/loi/jceda8 
        Education in Chemistry - http://www.rsc.org/education/eic/
                                              http://www.rsc.org/Education/EiC/issues/ 


  F. Chemistry Directory - http://murov.info/webercises.htm
 

  G. Organic Chemistry Directory - http://murov.info/orgchem.htm 

  H. Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry - http://murov.info/Reaction-Map.htm

  I. Literature search -
         http://www.researchgate.net/ 
         http://isciencesearch.com/iss/default.aspx  (partially free)

 J. New sites of interest - 
    ACS highlighted articles - http://pubs.acs.org/editorschoice/
    a boat in a cocktail - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lojml0NBNts


Jump to
Chemistry Webercises Directory.

visitor counter (restarted at zero on 07/26/12) Site first uploaded on 10/23/98 with about 115,000 hits since then.

Stats Meters